Short Film Treatment

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    How would I get someone to make a short-film from a story that I've written?
    I have written a short-story and would love to see it being made into a short-film but have no idea where to start or who to contact. I've have no directing or any type of film-making experience so probably would want to collaborate with someone to make the short-film...any ideas where to start?

    • ANSWER:
      You can contact your local college or other school that has script or screenwriting courses.

      What the writing needs to be formatted into is called a 'treatment' -- basically it's telling what's happening, not only with the actors, but also what the viewer is seeing (e.g. camera shots, music, whether it's an interior shot or exterior). It's really a fancy outline.

      Here's a site with some info. on treatments:
      http://www.stormforcepictures.com/writingascript-treatment.php

      Also, you can check out your local library which should have many books on this topic as well.

      Finally, consider having someone (a neutral person--not friend or family) read and critique your final treatment; if you can find someone like someone who is in the entertainment business or a professor of film that's the best.

      Good luck!
      PS: Be wary of blogs, and people phishing to steal ideas.

  2. QUESTION:
    How to write a short film essay (cinematic essay) ?
    How to write a short film essay (cinematic essay) ?

    • ANSWER:
      I think you mean treatment. Teachers these days are never current with lingo unless they are in California with us.

      The following link takes you to a sample treatment.

      http://www.donedealpro.com/members/details.aspx?object_id=281&content_type=1&section_id=13

  3. QUESTION:
    What do doctors do when you have a heart attack right after you give birth?
    What do they say im doing a short film

    • ANSWER:
      The same as any other time you have a heart attack, treatment is the same too.

  4. QUESTION:
    What's the difference between a film scenario and a treatment?
    I'm applying to Graduate School (Film Program). The school's I'm applying to require I include a film scenario in my portfolio, along with a script and treatment. I've written synopsis's, treatments, and scripts before. What on earth is the difference between a film scenario and a treatment?

    • ANSWER:
      Quote:"A film treatment (or treatment for short) is a piece of prose, typically the step between scene cards (index cards) and the first draft of a screenplay for a motion picture, television program, or radio play. It is generally longer and more detailed than an outline (or one-page synopsis), and it may include details of directorial style that an outline omits. They read like a short story, except told in the present tense and describing events as they happen. There are two types: the original draft treatment, created during the writing process, and the presentation treatment, created as presentation material."

      I think a scenario is basically the set up in 5 sentences or less.
      A treatment is a major scene to scene outline.

  5. QUESTION:
    How to execute this concept through a silent short film?
    It's about a person coming out of a building labelled 'School of Dead". I want to show that person going to different places and look at things which are supposed to be very loud, but he cant hear because he is deaf.

    The idea is to showcase how differently deaf people experience things, that we experience daily without noticing how different they would be if they were silent.

    I am new to film making so please tell me the proper treatment on how to go about shooting it. Various shots, locations, camera angles etc.

    Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      if you want the viewer to experience what it's like to be deaf, do a short visual introduction of the character, then film from this person's point of view (the camera is the person, the person is not to be seen anymore). film someone asking directions, second time louder (gestures, mouth wide open, angry face?). and a music store with people outside dancing. might be nice if you could have a polica car with siren and gun shots that everyone responds to (running), confusing your subject. puzzling face might be the last shot. good luck!

  6. QUESTION:
    I have to get a head life cast for a movie but I am afraid?
    I have to get a head and arms life cast for a short film but I am afraid.....
    Has anyone ever had a head life cast done before?

    • ANSWER:
      It's a weird feeling, but it can be relaxing too. Think of it like getting a facial treatment at a spa. Tell them upfront that you're nervous, ask them to talk you through it.
      A good FX artist will describe what they're doing, and keep talking to you while the alginate (or moulage) sets so that you know you're not being left alone.
      Usually, they'll do your arms first so that you can see what's going to happen.

      Bring a CD player (boom box, not headphones of course!) and listen to your favorite music if it helps you relax.

  7. QUESTION:
    How to execute this concept through a silent short film?
    It's about a person coming out of a building labelled 'School of Dead". I want to show that person going to different places and look at things which are supposed to be very loud, but he cant hear because he is deaf.

    The idea is to showcase how differently deaf people experience things, that we experience daily without noticing how different they would be if they were silent.

    I am new to film making so please tell me the proper treatment on how to go about shooting it. Various shots, locations, camera angles etc.

    Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      Have him walk through a construction area. If yoiu want the movie to be scary, you could have lots of near misses with stuff almost hitting him and running him over.

  8. QUESTION:
    How to execute this concept through a silent short film?
    It's about a person coming out of a building labelled 'School of Dead". I want to show that person going to different places and look at things which are supposed to be very loud, but he cant hear because he is deaf.

    The idea is to showcase how differently deaf people experience things, that we experience daily without noticing how different they would be if they were silent.

    I am new to film making so please tell me the proper treatment on how to go about shooting it. Various shots, locations, camera angles etc.

    Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      Well you can watch the movie Mr. Holland's Opus (1995) to get some ideas. It's about a guy who loves music and he's a music teacher at a school. But when he has a son, his son is born deaf.

      There's a scene where the mother and the son (when he's still a toddler) are at a parade and firetrucks are going by with their sirens on or something like that. Anyway it's just very noisy and the mother looks around and sees that all the other little kids are putting their hands over their ears because it's too loud for them. Then she looks down at her own son and sees he's not disturbed at all.

      Of course the father, being such a huge music lover, is horrified to find out his own son is deaf. It's a really sweet story of how he comes around to accept his son. At the end the father puts on a concert for his son and other deaf kids but he sets up these huge lights around the stage so that the lights pulse in time with the rhythm of the music.

      For locatins I would just use places where sound/music is a focus. So concerts, movies, construction sites, a fire alarm sounding ect. For shots I would probably do a lot of focusing on the persons ears and eyes. Ears to visually keep reminding the audience that he can't hear and then a close-up of the eyes to portray the fact that he has to be much more observant since he can't hear.

      So maybe he's in a building where the fire alarm goes off but all he can see is that people are rushing to get out. He's confused, watching these people moving passed him. There could be a shot of his eyes and then a shot of what he's looking at until he figures out that it's a fire alarm.

      Roughly like this:

      shot 1: people rushing passed him.

      shot 2: his eyes or a close-up of his face; he's confused

      shot 3: still people just rushing out, looking worried but as the viewer you don't see what they could be worried about

      shot 4: back on his face, now he's panicking slightly because he senses danger but realizes that there must be a sound he's not hearing

      shot 5: something which reveals it's a fire alarm. Maybe he sees where it was pulled or manages to locate a flashing sign that says 'fire' or maybe the sprinklers suddenly turn on.

  9. QUESTION:
    How to execute this concept through a silent short film?
    It's about a person coming out of a building labelled 'School of Dead". I want to show that person going to different places and look at things which are supposed to be very loud, but he cant hear because he is deaf.

    The idea is to showcase how differently deaf people experience things, that we experience daily without noticing how different they would be if they were silent.

    I am new to film making so please tell me the proper treatment on how to go about shooting it. Various shots, locations, camera angles etc.

    Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      That's really complicated question.
      Your concept has one major flaw - sound waves have vibration. So even if a person if deaf, they could go to a rock concert and still feel the beat and base of the music.

      No matter what you put out there - banging symbols, rumbling rocks, explosions - he would always be able to know its there and how big a sound it is.

  10. QUESTION:
    How to execute this concept through a silent short film?
    It's about a person coming out of a building labelled 'School of Dead". I want to show that person going to different places and look at things which are supposed to be very loud, but he cant hear because he is deaf.

    The idea is to showcase how differently deaf people experience things, that we experience daily without noticing how different they would be if they were silent.

    I am new to film making so please tell me the proper treatment on how to go about shooting it. Various shots, locations, camera angles etc.

    Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      How about showing him crossing a crosswalk while impatient drivers are pounding their horns?

  11. QUESTION:
    Can you think of any films that paint mental asylums in a nice light?
    Many films such as One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Girl Interupted and now Changeling make 'psychopathic wards' look like awful places to be. Granted, usually these films are set (or filmed) a while ago in the past when they may have been terrible places to be.
    I am wondering those if these films do show an accurate portrayal (for the time they're set), and whether there are any films that show such places positively?

    • ANSWER:
      I thought that the institution portrayed in the movie Awakenings (1990) had a positive image, for the most part.
      http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0099077/
      I just saw the movie called Away From Her (2006) in which a woman is committed to the "second floor" of a nursing home which specializes in the care of those with severe dementia or Alzheimer's. The setting they showed in the movie was actually better than I've seen in real life.
      http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0491747/
      Another nursing home setting that didn't look "bad" and was realistic was in the movie Stuck (2007) with Mena Suvari who plays the part of a nurse's aide.
      http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0758786/
      There's an old Bruce Willis movie called Mercury Rising (1998) in which they show just snippets of a children's mental institution and that looked positive to me.
      http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0120749/

      NOTE: Shock therapy is almost always given a bad rap in movies (such as in Changeling). However, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a well established, albeit controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in anesthetized patients for therapeutic effect. Today, ECT is most often used as a treatment for severe depression which has not responded to other treatment, and is also used in the treatment of mania (often in bipolar disorder), catatonia, schizophrenia and other disorders. If administered correctly, the benefits outweigh the short duration of discomfort. Memory loss is probably the biggest side effect but the memories usually comes back in full. Bilateral shocks to the temples cause the most memory loss and it CAN be permanent.
      I just read that Carrie Fisher (of Star Wars fame) goes for elective shock therapy every month!

  12. QUESTION:
    How to remove or clear the lung with fibrosis or healed lesions? (but no disease, which is seen on xray film)?
    According to the doctor, the patient has no disease, no symptoms & treatment not required.

    • ANSWER:
      "Fibrosis" is a term used to refer to scarring, so pulmonary fibrosis means scarring throughout the lungs. Pulmonary fibrosis can be caused by many conditions including chronic inflammatory processes (sarcoidosis, Wegener's granulomatosis ), infections, environmental agents (asbestos, silica, exposure to certain gases), exposure to ionizing radiation (such as radiation therapy to treat tumors of the chest), chronic conditions (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis), and certain medications.

      My husband had an infection as a child and lived out of the US so didn't get proper treatment. He now has fibrosis in the left lung. Up until the last 3 years, he didn't have much of a problem. Some other problems came up and now he is short of breath on exertion but is able to do most things at a slower pace. He is 74. There is a lot of info to be found on Pulmonary fibrosis but it doesn't pertain to everyone.

      You or whoever is involved should follow the MD's advice. Probably there is a small amount of fibrosis which won't impact the patient, at least at this time. The fibrosis and lesions can't be cleared but can be lived with.

  13. QUESTION:
    Can I get kicked out the military due to my asthma?
    Well, I was asthmatic when growing up. It was in my medical records and all. I exercised and grew up and hopefully got out of it. I joined the military took their asthma tests and they said I was fine. My asthma came back to me twice in basic. My Drill sergeants were able to keep it on a low profile and didn't tell anyone. My asthma acted up again a few days ago. I was wheezing in breathing heavily, gasping for breath. I had it again when I was filming a short film. I started wheezing and stuff.I'm going to the doctor soon about it. Can I get kicked out the military if I tell them?

    • ANSWER:
      Consider trying over the counter treatments for asthma which would keep it out of the notice of the medics. If your problem is mild, that might be enough. But if it is becoming a serious issue, you have no choice but to go to the doctor and take your chances.

      Anyway, that's what I did.

  14. QUESTION:
    What is this on my neck and under my breast?
    I have a rash or fungus of some type that only appears in these areas. I didn't develop this until after the tanning bed. I have a friend who had it that is black though and he told me to use head and shoulders. This worked only for a short time. It gets worse during summer, but always itches and is there even in winter just not as visible. If I could just gets some possible diagnosis I will research myself. Thanks.
    Is a yeast infection on those areas possible? EWWW
    By the way I have had this for three years. Just worse some years.

    • ANSWER:
      Ah you have the dreaded Tinea Versicolor. I had it for many years and I used Nizoral from time to time and it finally got rid of it. Also try taking Acidophilous(I think that's how you spell it). it helps to build your immune system against yeast that is affecting your skin. Clean all your clothes and bed sheets. You can also get lamisil spray from your doctor or buy the prescription pills.

      Tinea versicolor or pityriasis versicolor is a common skin infection caused by the yeast Malassezia furfur (formerly termed Pityrosporum ovale). This yeast is normally found on the human skin and only becomes troublesome under certain circumstances, such as a warm and humid environment. It is occasionally referred to by its colloquial Hawaiian moniker, "haole rot".

      The symptoms of this condition include:

      * Generally oval or irregularly-shaped spots of 1/4 to 1 inch in diameter, often merging together to form a larger patch
      * Occasional fine scaling of the skin producing a very superficial ash-like scale
      * Pale, dark tan, or pink in color, with a reddish undertone that can darken when the patient is overheated, such as in a hot shower or during/after exercise
      * Sharp border
      * Itching that can worsen with sweating or overheating

      These spots commonly affect the back, underarm, upper arm, chest, lower legs, and neck. Occasionally it can also be present on the face. The yeasts can often be seen under the microscope within the lesions and typically have a so called "spaghetti and meat ball appearance" as the round yeasts produce filaments.

      In people with dark skin tones, pigmentary changes such as hypopigmentation (loss of color) are common, while in those with lighter skin color, hyperpigmentation (increase in skin color) are more common. These discolorations have led to the term "sun fungus".

      [edit] Prevalence

      Tinea versicolor is a common condition. It is estimated that 2 to 8% of the population of the United States has it. This skin disease commonly affects adolescents and young adults, especially in warm and humid climates. It is thought that the yeast feeds on skin oils (lipids) as well as dead skin cells.

      [edit] Treatment

      Treatments for tinea versicolor include:

      * Topical antifungal medications - containing either 2.5% selenium sulfide (Selsun shampoo in UK, but not Selsun Blue which contains only 1%) or 2% ketoconazole (Nizoral ointment and shampoo) applied to dry skin and washed off after 10 minutes, repeated daily for 2 weeks. Other topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, miconazole or terbinafine are less widely recommended. Additionally, Hydrogen Peroxide has been known to lessen symptoms, and on certain occasions, remove the problem.[citation needed]
      * Oral antifungal prescription only medications include 400 mg of ketoconazole or fluconazole in a single dose, or ketoconazole 200 mg daily for 7 days, or itraconazole 400 mg daily for 3-7 days. The single-dose regimens can be made more effective by having the patient exercise 1-2 hours after the dose, to induce sweating. The sweat is allowed to evaporate, and showering is delayed for a day, leaving a film of the medication on the skin.[citation needed]
      * Recurrence is common and may be reduced by intermittent application of topical agents (such as tea tree oil) or adding a small amount of anti-dandruff shampoo to water used for bathing.

  15. QUESTION:
    What sound equipment will I need to shoot a drama?
    we are shooting a short film (drama) at my college i have started compiling my sound treatment but am sure i am missing something what equipment will i need besides this: Fostex FR-2 is a 2-channel recorder
    Sounddevices 302
    Sennheiser MKH50
    AKG's 480
    Boom equipped with a shock mount
    Blimp
    XLR cable
    and are these the best option? g

    • ANSWER:
      I can answer your question but first you need to tell me what any of this has to do with photography. are you trying to capture the sound of a camera?

  16. QUESTION:
    Does your hair really fall out when conditioner touches the skin on the top of your head?
    I was just wondering since I've been hearing about this "myth" from a few of my friends.
    Supposedly, after using shampoo on your head, you should use conditioner. However, i was told that if you use conditioner, you should NOT let the conditioner touch the skin on the top of your head: only let it touch the hair - otherwise you will lose hair more rapidly.
    Well i thought that this would be very difficult since I have short hair.
    Is this true?

    • ANSWER:
      The main reason not to let conditioner touch your scalp is to keep it form giving your root area a greasy, flat appearance. However, according to the Nioxin website (which is a company that specializes in treatment for thinning hair), damaging alcohols and PVP film found in some hair products can clog the hair follicle, which after many years of use may plug the follicle, discouraging hair growth. http://www.nioxin.com/go/en/scalp-and-hair-health/health-info/scalp-benefits/
      When learning about Nioxin for retail in salon, they sent us a video that magnetized the scalp purging the clogged areas after repeated use of the Nioxin line. (Which is actually scalp friendly, and does nourish the skin)
      So I guess in answer to your question, unless the conditioner is formulated for conditioning the scalp as well, you should probably avoid rubbing it into the scalp. It won't exactly cause hair loss overnight to use chemical laden conditioners on the scalp, but over the years it has the potential to cause complications.

  17. QUESTION:
    What would be the Muslim stand to debate Geert Wilders movie FITNA?
    I mean, he's quoting directly from the Koran and those verses clearly describe Islam as an intolerant and bloodthirsty religion.
    The film clearly is not an academical investigation but it manages to simplify their means in a very understandable way, doesn't it?

    Thanks for taking your time!

    • ANSWER:
      Islam is a bloodthirsty and intolerant religion.

      It incites hatred of Christians, but more especially the Jews.
      The Koran says that the Jews are like donkeys!

      62: 5 The likeness of those who were entrusted with the Taurat (Torah), but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is as the likeness of a donkey who carries huge burdens of books (but understands nothing from them). How bad is the example (or the likeness) of people who deny the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah. And Allah guides not the people who are Zalimun (polytheists, wrong-doers, disbelievers, etc.).

      2:96 says that they are the greediest people...
      And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who - ascribe partners to Allah (and do not believe in Resurrection - Magians, pagans, and idolaters, etc.). Everyone of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment. And Allah is All-Seer of what they do.

      Note: animal analogies are used a number of times
      Sabbath breakers are said to be like monkeys...
      2: 65 And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected."

      In short the various passages say horrible things...
      2:61 says that al-lah stamped wrtechedness upon them.
      4:61 Says that they (and Christians) believe in idols
      5:52 they are cursed.
      5:93 the Jews are cursed
      5:51 don't take a Jew as a friend
      5:53 Jews (and Christians) are losers
      5:57 Don't choose Jews, (or Christians, or disbelievers) as guardians
      5:59 Jews (and Christians) are evil-doers
      5:63 Rabbis do evil

      5:51
      O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya' (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliya' to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers and unjust).

      Really the only time they are supposed to is in order to get new converts, or out of necessity.

      It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to take a male or female friend who is not a Muslim, because Allaah has forbidden us to love the kuffaar or take them as close friends and companions
      http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/69876

      It is permissible for you to let your aunt stay with you so that you can call her to Islam and encourage her with wisdom and beautiful preaching, If she sees you and your good attitude and kind treatment, that may be a means of opening her heart to this great religion. Attitude and actions may often be more eloquent than words and preaching. So strive hard to do that, and if Allaah guides her at your hands, that will be better for you than this world and everything in it.
      http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/70219

      Question :
      In the Quraan, it says that we can not take the Kuffaar as awliyaa, but what does that mean? I mean, to what degree? Can we do business with them still? If I'm at school, can we play basketball with them? Can we talk to them about basketball and stuff? Can we hang out with them as long as they keep their beliefs to themselves? The reason I ask is because someone I know does hang out with them in this way and it doesn't affect his beliefs, but I still tell him, "Why don't you hang out with the muslims instead?" He says that most or many of the Muslims drink and take drugs where they hang out and they have girlfriends and he's afraid that the sins of the Muslims will lure him, yet he's sure that the Kufr of the Kaafirs will not lure him because that's something that isn't attractive to him. So is hanging out with them, playing sports with them, and talking with them about sports considered as "taking them as awliyaa instead of the believers" keeping in mind that he is doing that for his own eemaan?.
      Answer :
      Praise be to Allaah.
      Firstly:
      Allaah has forbidden the believers to take the kaafireen (disbelievers) as friends, and He has issued a stern warning against doing that.
      http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/59879

      Here's a site that sincerly believes all non-Muslims are condemned, so friendship requires the invitation to Islam.
      Since you have feelings of concern for your friends, why don;’t you give them Da’awah (invitation) to Islam. It is stated in the Hadith that ‘A true friend is he who invites his friend to the straight path, i.e. towards Islam, good deeds, charity, etc.’ Make lots of du’aa for your non-Muslim friends that Allah grant them the wealth of Imaan and that they realise the truth from falsehood.
      http://www.islam.tc/ask-imam/view.php?q=12410
      Again the issue of being freinds for the purposes of conversion arises...
      " Islam is the religion of tolerance, ease and flexibility, and at the same time, it is the religion of justice. Hospitality is a part of

  18. QUESTION:
    How to deal with a loved one that is a stroke victim?
    My father had his stroke about 7 years ago. Although his doctors say that there is potential for him to get better, he just doesn't seem to have any motivation or determination. All he wants to do is sit in his room and watch tv all day everyday. He barely even talks. He lives in an assisted living facility and the staff tells me that he talks to them and answers questions when asked. When I try talking to him its almost like pulling teeth. I only get short one word answers, his favorite is "alright". When I try asking open ended questions he just stares off into space not answering me at all.
    Yesterday we sat in his room with no tv and I tried talking to him again only to find myself talking to myself. I sat there in complete silence just to see if he would say anything and not one word was uttered.
    It is very heart breaking to watch him like this. Do any of you have any experience with a family member like this? Help please I want my daddy to talk to me.

    • ANSWER:
      Hello.
      I work as an Occupational Therapist and have worked with many stroke victims. Each one is different. I agree with the answers above. I think it is fine to give the good memories of your past with him. Sometimes it is easier for people to talk to strangers than their own family as they feel like they are failures. Do you tell him how it hurts you when he doesn't talk to you? Make sure he knows you love him no matter what and you know things are not the same. Is he physically able to get around and do things? It sounds like he is since he is in Assisted Living. Tell him how you honestly feel but don't make it sound accusatory. Let him know you are genuinely concerned about him. What did he do before his stroke? Since it has been 7 years ago, it isn't going to be easy for him to just jump into something after doing nothing for years. Maybe you can agree to get him to do something with you once a week, like go out to dinner. Many do get depressed. Do you have any other family members that share the same experience as you with him? Often stroke victims feel hopeless and helpless. They feel abandoned after they leave a hospital. They got used the the 24 hour care and when they go home, they don't have that full attention they once had there. They may get angry easier. They may find it much harder to communicate and just shut down, especially with the ones they love.

      Here is a website that might help: I copied and pasted most of it, not all of it. You could sit down with the people of assistive living and your father at the same time and see if he will talk to both of you. http://www.ahealthyme.com/topic/depstroke
      For all of his advantages, there was a moment when actor Kirk Douglas was so despondent after suffering a stroke that he opened a drawer, grabbed the pistol he had used in the film Gunfight at the OK Corral, and put the gun in his mouth. But he accidentally knocked the barrel against his teeth. The pain made him laugh at himself long enough to reconsider pulling the trigger.

      In the years following his stroke in 1995, the macho film legend recovered his ability to speak, and went on to write a book about his experience to inspire other stroke victims during their recovery. But if severe depression could overtake Kirk Douglas, who had the best of everything -- a parade of household help, the support of his family and thousands of adoring fans -- think how emotionally devastating a stroke can be for the rest of us.

      As many as half of all people who suffer a stroke become clinically depressed. It's certainly understandable that a person's outlook would be directly connected to how much he or she has lost. After having a stroke, people can experience full or partial paralysis of the muscles in their faces or limbs. They can also lose the ability to speak, significantly jeopardizing their connection to the rest of the world.
      Although it's understandable to feel overwhelming anguish, there are ways to recover from depression with the help of your friends, family, and support groups as well as professionial care.

      What causes depression in stroke survivors?

      Some scientists believe that the stroke-induced brain injury itself can cause it. "In most patients, they develop depression secondary to brain injury," says Ezzeddine. "The hypothesis is that some of the brain circuits known to be involved in depression can be affected by stroke. If you had bouts of depression before the stroke, it's more likely you'll develop it after."

      Besides psychological issues, it's hardly surprising that the more disabling the stroke, the more likely it is that the survivor will experience depression. One study, in the journal Hospital Medicine, equated severe post-stroke disability with a two to three times greater risk for depression than the people who experienced little or no disability.
      What's the treatment for post-stroke depression?

      The treatment can differ from the usual remedies because some medicines commonly used to treat depression are dangerous for stroke survivors. Tricyclic antidepressants, for example, can inhibit recovery in a stroke survivor, according to Ezzeddine. Other medications commonly taken by people who have had strokes -- like beta blockers, a type of heart medication -- can also deepen depression. But there are many other medication choices.

      In addition, seeking psychotherapy, setting goals for recovery, and getting involved in social activities can all help. Here are some other ways for stroke survivors to free themselves from depression:

      •Get involved in daily activities with friends or family. Many stroke survivors feel isolated and alone, even if they aren't physically incapacitated from the stroke.
      •Find a support group with a trained facilitator. It could help provide emotional support as well as useful tips for managing your disabilities. Consult the National Stroke Association for groups near you.
      •The American Heart Association now recommends aerobic and strengthening exercise for stroke survivors. If you're capable of exercising, ask your doctor for a referral to an exercise class. Many hospitals or senior centers offer exercise classes for stroke survivors.
      •Ask your doctor how to relieve any physical discomforts like pain, muscle spasms, and constipation that can all add to depression.
      •If you're capable of volunteering, even if it's just an hour or two a week, it will not only help others, but could also help you feel better about yourself.

  19. QUESTION:
    How can I style my hair like Emma Watson's?
    She plays Hermione Granger in the Harry Potter film franchise. I love how her stylist does her hair in the movies, and was wondering how I can recreate them? I've tried, but my curls end up looking fried (and I have a 300 dollar curling iron) and my hair gets frizzy. I always brush my hair before, make sure all the knots are out, but it ends up getting tangled anyway and I'm very careful.

    • ANSWER:
      Celebrity Hairstyles - News and Info
      Celebrity Hairstyles Galleries: Long Straight Long Curly Midlength Short

      More on Celebrity Hairstyles & Beauty Eye on Celebrity & Beauty
      How to Imitate Celebrity Looks Celebrity Hairstyles News

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      How To - Advice - Tips
      How To Index - Braiding Hair
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      Books - Videos - Software
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  20. QUESTION:
    Has anyone ever done anything to stop these farms that brutally torture and kill animals?
    I just watched this terrible short film and it scarred me for life. Are these people aloud to torture animals that we eat? If you want to look at it go ahead

    http://www.hiddenfaceoffood.com/

    • ANSWER:
      Certain Animal organisations petition government to stop the abuse.
      The abuse ranges from really really bad, to mild- congress is supposed to report and enoforce laws being broken on factory farms, such as animals being kept in too small cages, or not having any room to breath, but this hardly ever happens and most farms continue to run overcrowded sweat lodges for downer cows( the sick lame cows that can't walk)
      http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RS21978.pdf

      Groups like peta and alf do go picket the factory farms and try to do damage sometimes.

      ANimal Aid is one type of organization that campaigns for good treatment of animals in their environment. Help does get through, but even the government constantly has to go inspect factory farms that are not sticking to the codes.

      California link here- from unbiased sources.
      http://www.californiacowsarenothappy.com/links

  21. QUESTION:
    What do you think of the Canon GL-2 Mini DV 3 CCD Camcorder?
    I make small local action ski shorts. The camera is in my price range, but I am curious; has anyone ever had problems with it? Anything I should know about besides very common stats and information?

    • ANSWER:
      A very good quality camera, Will serve you better than a HDD camera, as the GL is able to cope with the rough treatment, as for "remove tape" probs this is normally down to swapping makers of tapes, they are supposed to be the same but it realty the lube they use is different and can mess up the record heads, requiring them to be cleaned more often.

      The top handle makes it great for your type of filming, although a harness may be better. also having a viewfinder and screen helps, as you can save a lot of power by not using the screen.

      Good luck

      Keep to the same make of tape

      RR

  22. QUESTION:
    How long should a script treatment be?
    Its for screen writing class and its do t/m.

    • ANSWER:
      You should be able to convey the story in two pages, Courier 12 point, especially if we're talking feature length. Short films could be even shorter.

      Think about telling your story as if it were a fairy tale.

      Treatments, though, can be longer or shorter based on how much detail you include, or the complexities of the story. I wouldn't expect a treatment of "Traffic" to hit two pages!

      But a story like "Mr. and Mrs. Smith" or "Shaun of the Dead" could easily be put on two pages. I know your project's due t/m, but telling the story of some of your favorite movies in two pages would be a great way to practice the technique.

      You can even try to mimic narrative structure on your page. Try to be halfway through the story at the bottom of page one. This sounds like a easy way out (two pages), but you'll find it's a challenge to write so briefly and consisely. Good luck!

  23. QUESTION:
    How do you right a script?
    I have had an idea for a film and have planned it out got together some good ideas and am still in the research stage - how do i go from there to actually produce a script? it seems a bit daunting.
    Thanks Kevin - that was appaling of me - thats the problem with being dyslexic, sometimes you make mistakes which you don't pick up until your face is already red.

    • ANSWER:
      There's lots of guidebooks on how to write a script -- but not all screenwriters follow them. You're already doing the basics: planning our your narrative and researching it. There's lots of ways to get to a fully polished script -- you could write your idea out as a short story (this is like "doing a treatment"). You could do photographic or drawn storyboards (like a comic) sketching each scene. You could invite some actors to improvise scenes and videotape them as source material.

      Take a look at the published screenplays or script books (these are two different things) for a show or movie that you really like: I think that the Buffy script books are awesome. These will give you some idea of what a script "should" look like.

      You can also buy software such as Final Draft which will help you set out your screenplay in a way that producers will understand. It won't write it for you, but it may help you organise your thoughts.

      Remember that most writers will draft and redraft up to 20 times, so don't worry about getting it "right" on the first try! Just get it down on paper -- and keep print outs or save versions of each draft, as you may want to go back to something. Good luck!

  24. QUESTION:
    How do we help our dog get through panic attacks?
    Our new puppy came from a shelter and has obviously been hurt. She is maybe two, a corgi mix, and spayed. She woke up last night breathing hard, almost snorting. We went in and gave her some love and she calmed down. She slept in the bed the rest of the night and she finally went to sleep. How can we help her feel safe and stop having panic attacks?
    She has been abused because she has scars on her body. The vet seemed to think so. She has been sleeping in the bathroom in a crate. We are not overly "poor baby" with her and stay calm, but thought last night she was pretty freaked out.

    • ANSWER:
      sorry to hear your new dog has had a bad start before you got her.

      however be careful how you calm her, if you go in and do the 'oh you poor thing and really make a fuss she will actually think whatever frightened her is something really bad to be feared and get worse. if you go in calm make sure that she isn't hurt, or badly injured herself anywhere, distract her with something and not make a lot of whatever it was.

      I notice the same occurs to frightened dogs as it does with children, those children that get lots of cuddles and 'mummies poor little....' 'oh dear, mummies here to comfort you... etc. cause they are crying over a very minor injury, will cry and make a bigger thing of even minor injuries than before, however those children that are upset over a little pin prick of a cut, whose mother comes in and has a look and says 'oh never mind, mummy kiss it better, there all better' and then go off making little issue over a minor thing, then the child learns that actually its not worth getting all upset over a little cut like that, might as well get on and enjoy myself playing again. and dogs need the same, regardless of what past they had.

      its not a problem to give the dog a quick hug and then distract it to a toy, or something it isn't frightened of and if its only a quick yowl at passing motorbike say and then its over, its often not worth doing anything, obviously if its going loopy, crying and screaming even in terror, then you do need to comfort it, but do it without fussing or using that 'poor baby' voice, as the dog will assume you are frightened of it too and think also that it needs to try to look after you as well and it ends up an unhappy dog, that agitated all the time.

      If she really is getting herself into a right state and you can't clm her down or distract her, see if you vet has something that will help calm her down and make her less terrified of whatever it is that frightens her, while she gets used to you and her new home. also if she isn't to end up sleeping in your bed for the rest of her life, don't start now, it can be hard to reverse it. some people say that buying a cheap jumper from a jumble sale/table top sale or charity shop, wear it and then place it in her bed when your away from her, it can help her to be calmer, cause she can smell you.

      I know one person that did it and left the jumper on the other side of the door, so when the dog woke up and couldn't find her owner and would howl the place down and try to wreak the place to find her owner, the jumper under the door, smelt of her owner and she just assumed her owner was on the other side and returned to bed.

      if you are still really worried about the breathing and state she gets into have a chat with you vet, if possible take a short film clip of her acting in that way, on a digital camera that takes video too, so he/she can see it, as seeingexactly how she reacts to the problem and other every day things, can help a vet form a tailored treatment plan that should work for her, obviously we here can't see exactly what she does and can only offer general advice.

      but hope it helps a bit

  25. QUESTION:
    How to do a 24, 48, or 72-Hour Film Festival?
    What is the best way to get the money and/or equipment to compete in a 24, 48, our 72-Hour Film Festival?

    Basically how would you go about at a Producer's viewpoint (other viewpoints are welcome)?

    • ANSWER:
      First, shoot digital. It's easier and cheaper. A Panasonic DVX or HVX should work fine. Then it depends on your network. Do you know people who work at rental houses? Do any of them DP or grip? If so, they can get you the hookup in exchange for a DP or grip credit.
      If you're a college student, or near college age and have friends in film school, the film department should be a good resource of equipment.

      Do you know anyone with equipment packages of their own? If so, put them on your crew.

      It's best to anticipate the 24-72 hour festivals with a short, well written, malleable (so it can be changed for the festival's specifications) script or treatment. You should have some actors in your network who could be ready to go at anytime. It's a bonus if they can also double as crew. Keep the characters and locations to a minimum. Have a good team ready. Have every team member pitch in financially and conceptually. The better organized and harmonious the team, the better the outcome. The lower the concept the cheaper and the easier (you can up the concept with a 72 hour film fest).

      So it boils down to:

      Shoot and edit digitally
      Build a good network
      Find a good team
      Have a low concept idea
      Be resourceful, think outside the box

  26. QUESTION:
    How to super clean an ancient grimey toastie maker?
    Going through the cupboards at my new place [boyfriend house] I've found a toastie maker, a really old one, and its covered in grease and grime and is stained orange and nasty. Still covered in crumbs and dried fillings - its really quite gross. He has decided now i've found it he wants to keep it, so how do i safely clean it and destain it without damaging the electricals?

    • ANSWER:
      haha...this question made me laugh cause i could just picture the toaster oven you were describing. The following steps should help. This is how I cleaned mine and all came out well. But you're right about the electrical parts, be careful to keep them as dry as possible and dry them off thoroughly before plugging it back in.

      The Steps:
      Step1 Turn off the toaster oven then unplug it. Let it cool completely before attempting to clean it.
      Step2 Remove the crumb tray. Dump out the crumbs and then scrub it with dish soap, warm water and a nonabrasive sponge.
      Step3 Wipe down the exterior of the toaster oven. Use a lint-free cloth and a sanitizing spray such as 409.
      Step4 Clean the toaster oven's interior with warm, soapy water and a sponge. Warm water will help to dissolve the grease.
      Step5 Scrub the hard-to-remove food buildup with a synthetic scouring pad. If you wipe it clean after each use you should be able to avoid the buildup of food.
      Step6 Remove and clean the shelving with warm soapy water. Let it dry thoroughly before putting it back in the toaster oven.

      ***If you are refering to a toaster (the kind with slots, not the oven kind) perhaps this info will help. I will link to the articles I got these steps from under the sources section so you can read it from their website if it is easier =) **

      To clean a toaster:
      Disassembly
      If it really need cleaning, the more parts you can remove, the easier it is to clean. Two cautions before breaking down each piece. Putting it back together is more difficult that taking it apart especially timing and shutoff mechanisms, and be careful about tabs that may break with just one back-and-forth bending.

      Cleaners
      I've found a mixture of liquid chrome cleaner and Softscrub a good overall cleaner. Softscrub can scratch some finishes if rubbed very hard. Bon Ami can be substituted for Softscrub to be on the safe side. For plain dust & grime, Fantastik or 409 are good starters. Glass cleaners are good for removing the leftover film and finger marks.

      The black, carbonized coatings in the seams, stampings and door edges usually require some extra abrasion and scraping. On inside surfaces a scouring pad or knife edge can be used. Steel wool should be avoided even for hidden corroded parts. The steel wool particles have a way of ending up on a rag used on polished surfaces, leaving scratches where you don't want them.

      Tools
      A piece of hardwood dowel sharpened to a chisel point makes a good scraper, with or without a rag wrapped around. I've also had good results with copper wire (the type used to ground plumbing pipes). One end is filed to chisel point, the other end is hammered flat until it forms a thin spade-like end that can be shaped easily with a file. Copper can scratch polished chrome or nickel under too much pressure, but if used lightly, can scrape hard- to remove spots including paint spatters that a lot of toasters seem to have acquired over the years. Obviously, copper should not be used on aluminum.

      Support delicate basket doors with wood slat
      Supports
      Anything that will hold a piece in place while you clean will make the job easier I keep a variety of small wooden blocks and sticks for support and to protect the surface. A wet rag over the wood adds extra cushioning. To support the entire toaster, I drilled holes at a slight angle in a base of wood so that short dowels can be inserted to form a V support at various widths (see photo above). The toaster can then be nestled upside down for cleaning or repair. A rag or carpet pad piece will help keep things from moving around. Reassembling a pop-up is much easier when the shell is held firmly in place.

      Miscellaneous
      Soaking parts helps, but don't soak Bakelite with painted lettering. The lettering should also be cleaned carefully to avoid removing the paint. Wooden handles need the same treatment. Keep wire insulation and mica parts as dry as possible.

      Rust is the crabgrass of the toaster lawn. Scrub off what you can and live with it until you find that rust-free upgrade. Scratches and buff marks also have to be lived with. Except for aluminum, I've found buffing on a grinder doesn't help much even with fine grades of buffing compound.

      Save your hands for the easy parts. Use toothbrushes and rags wrapped around sticks or small pliers for the corners and between parts. Oil and WD-40 are good for timers and mechanical parts. Pastewax will help the Bakelite and painted wood parts. I don't put anything on polished metal surfaces since I usually test the toaster with a few mornings-worth of toast. Testing also insures a thorough drying of the toaster's inside.

      ** Hope this was of some help!

  27. QUESTION:
    Can someone explain how photographs work? How they get images on paper?
    How do camera's copy images to photographs which we can view on paper? How's the whole thing work?

    • ANSWER:
      Light is focused on to a light sensitive chemical deposited on a thin film. The light is allowed to strike the film surface for a short time by the use of a shutter. The shutter acts as a valve for the light. When light strikes the film, the light sensitive chemical undergoes a chemical change. The amount of light makes a proportional amount of change in the light sensitive material (within limits). Too much light can 'overexpose' the film, causing too much of the light sensitive 'grains' to change and not leaving enough of them unexposed to make a discernable image. After exposure, the film is chemically treated to 'develop' the image. The chemical treatment causes a permanent change in the light sensitive grains, and renders them insensitive to light. It also makes them visible.

  28. QUESTION:
    How do I start making films...?
    I'm in the 10th Grade and I want to start making films, because I want to go into a career in filmmaking. The problem is, none of my friends are interested in doing this with me.
    What could I say to them to convince them to act in or help with my films. Or, where can I find young actors who would be willing to work with me?
    P.S. I live in a small country town so there are hardly any resources for young filmmmakers.

    • ANSWER:
      Try sending out casting calls...over emails, fliers, or anything. It'll be harder since you live in a small town, but you'd be surprised at how many people would be willing to help...especially if you have a little incentive. Being in high school, you probably don't have a whole lot of money to spend, but you could buy them lunch...which is what a lot of film students do to "pay" their actors.
      My first year of film school, I used family members in a majority of my films. When my family members we not available, I'd write short treatments or scripts with one character...where I could be my own actor. Set up your shot, and act out whatever you need to do. Be your own crew--writer, director, editor, ACTOR.

  29. QUESTION:
    What do you take with you while out lamping foxes?
    Let us know what equipment and accessories you take with you. Any preference to what caller you use ?

    • ANSWER:
      Here's the short list of essentials:
      Ammo Try to carry the same caliber as your hunting partner, if practical.
      Binos/Covers Waterproof, quality binos.
      Blistex Or other lip balm
      Bottle Filter Filled. I like the bottle water filters.
      Bow/Arrows Razor sharp arrows. Use a powerful bow for moose.
      Bug Dope A small bottle
      Camera/Film Waterproof camera and/or in ziplock bag with plenty of film
      Candle stub For emergency fire starting
      Canteen Filled with filtered water unless you have a bottle filter.
      Compass/Mirror Carry it! Know the direction to camp, river, etc. Signal mirror is a plus.
      Food High calorie, dry foods. Cheese, peanut butter, crackers, nuts, Snickers etc..
      Game Bag So you can carry a full load of meat back to camp
      GPS At least one per party. Know how to use it. Enter camps, pickup points, etc.
      Headlamp/batteries It’s good if your GPS and headlamp use the same size batteries.
      Knife I carry a Kershaw with 3 blades
      License In a ziplock in a secured pocket
      Lighters One in a ziplock in an inside secured pocket, the other elsewhere.
      Surveyor's Tape "Flagging." To mark your kill, trail, camp, whatever
      Matches In a waterproof container
      Measuring Tape Cloth tape to measure antlers/horns
      Moleskin Or some other blister treatment. Use it BEFORE you have blisters
      Pack I usually carry a frame pack, and "carry in field" items with me while hunting.
      Parachute Cord About 50 feet
      Prescription drugs
      Rain gear Quality raingear. Good to shed rain or protect you from a cold wind.
      Regulations I've had to consult the game regs MANY times in the field.
      Rifle Sighted-in. .270 or larger. A familiar gun that YOU can shoot ACCURATELY.
      Scope Cover
      Space Blanket The large, reinforced kind, NOT the thin ones as big as a cigarette pack.
      Spotting Scope At least one per party.
      Swiss Army Knife A spare, all-around knife.
      Game Tags/Permits In a ziplock in a secured pocket. Make sure you know how to tag your animal.
      This List Refer to it each time before heading afield.
      Toilet Paper In a ziplock.
      Topo Maps In clear, one gallon “freezer” ziplocks. Fold the map to show your area.
      Tripod Carry one that fits your camera and your spotting scope
      Warm clothes Extra warm clothes in a plastic bag. Include a balaclava.
      Watch
      Sleeping Gear
      Sleeping Bag Rated to about 10 degrees, avoid down unless you’re an expert camper.
      Sleeping Pad Closed cell foam, air mattress or Therm-a-Rest. Good for insulation & comfort.
      Tent Poles/Stakes Carry a strong, wind-resistant, name-brand tent that you’ve set up and tested.
      Camp Kitchen Items
      Food 2-3 lbs of food per day. Calorie rich, dry food. Avoid cans.
      Canteen
      Cooking Pots Two nesting pots of about 1-2 quarts (liters)
      Cup One for each member
      Foil Cooking fish or meat
      Fuel No fuel on commercial flights. Ask air taxi.
      Margarine For cooking and calories
      Can opener A small one. I like the military P-38 style
      Salt/Pepper If hunting, carry separate “cape salt.”
      Spoon and fork A set for each member
      Stove I like MSR white gas stoves. They are hot and efficient.
      Stove Kit/Wire Repair parts and the like.
      Towel
      Water Filter You should boil cooking water and filter drinking water
      Water Container Collapsible. For carrying water from source OR storing filtered water.
      Clothing
      Balaclava Fleece or polypro. They are the warmest item you can carry per pound!
      Cap A cap with a bill to keep the rain off your face, and earflaps, is nice
      Boots Broken in, waterproof hunting boots.
      Vest Fleece, fiber-fill or down.
      Gloves Fleece
      Hooded Sweatshirt Fleece
      Jacket Fleece
      Mittens Wool or fleece

  30. QUESTION:
    Does being good at art necessarily mean you will be good at graphic design?
    I'm bad at art and not good at graphic design? Is that because I'm not a good artist?

    • ANSWER:
      Art and design are not related to each other, so the short answer would be no.

      To be more specific, design is ultimately about solving a problem in a visual way, whereas art is a form of expression. Good design often becomes creative and expressive like art, but unlike art, the success comes in how effectively it conveys information and how the visual expression relates to the information.

      For example, think of a poster for an upcoming community theater musical. An artist would simply depict an image that relates to the musical and smack the date and time and important information at the bottom. A designer could go further, and actually create the imagery using the information... the days of the week it's being shown, THURSDAYFRIDAYSATURDAYSUNDAY become the horizontal line of the stage, with simple figures standing on the stage, each one saying part of the musical's title "The" "SOUND" "of" "MUSIC" they say. That kind of treatment is design, not art.

      The only similarities are the same similarities that transcend ALL visual arts, including photography, sculpture, film, etc. Those similarities are composition, use of color, negative space vs positive space, focus and movement. They are things that can be taught, not something that is a 'talent'.

      It took me 3 years of design school to begin producing decent, professional-looking designs. It took a LOT of time, and a LOT of practice, and a LOT of failures. The best part is, I can look back at my old work, and know exactly what I did wrong... I have LEARNED how to design; it wasn't a talent or something I've always had.

      I hope that helps. 😉

  31. QUESTION:
    What questions would a doctor ask the parents of a child who is suspected of having leukemia?
    I'm writing a story, and the main character's son is suspected of having leukemia. He's four; what questions would a doctor ask the parents?
    What tests would be run, and would they use chemo/radiation?

    • ANSWER:
      Hey Kerry,

      Good luck with your story :)

      Most common form of leukemia in a child would be a type called acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL for short. This is a disease of the bone marrow where some cells that normally produce white blood cells to fight infection divide uncontrollably, producing lots of useless white cell precursors that aren't useful in fighting disease. They also crowd out other bone marrow functions such as producing red blood cells and platelets.

      You would ask the parents questions for a child suspected of having leukemia:

      What's been going on?- Symptoms of feeling tired or grouchy, lots of infections, looking pale, bruising abnormally, enlarged abdomens, swollen glands, or bone pain

      How long has it been going on for?- Usually a few weeks, or sometimes much quicker than this

      Any fever?

      Any recent infections like a throat infection that haven't been responsive to antibiotics?

      Blood tests would be run (FBC/CBC) that may show an anaemia with a low Hb (haemoglobin), raised WCC and low platelets e.g.

      Hb 8.3
      WCC 25
      Plat 44

      A blood film where they smear blood on a slide and look under a microscope would show abnormal blast cells in the periphery.

      A bone marrow sample taken with a needle and aspiration of bone marrow tissue would confirm the diagnosis.

      Treatment:

      Chemotherapy based

      Induction would last five weeks, and include drugs such as vincristine and methotrexate with a steroid like dexamethasone

      The brain and CNS would then be treated with methotrexate into the spinal cord spaces (intrathecally) and vincristine.

      Maintenance therapy would include monthly vincristine and dexamethasone, daily 6-mercaptopurine, weekly oral methotrexate, prophylactic antibiotics such as TMP-SMX

      so as you can see this is a lot of medicine for a four year old to have to take!

      Good luck with your story :)

  32. QUESTION:
    Has anyone had 100% success treating gum disease/perionitis with natural products?
    I have advancing gum disease, no bleeding or soreness, but gum recession is dramatic.
    I can not afford treatment at this time. There seems to be many advertisments for natural products that have cured this disease without invasive root planning/scaling. The ads have glowing testimonials and obviously the cost is much less than conventional treatment. I would love to know if anyone has used any of these treatments, and if they are avail in Aus.

    • ANSWER:
      there is help..gum disease is bad as one can lose perfectly fine and healthy teeth due to the bone lose accompanying it and the resultant loosening and eventual loss of teeth,

      But there is help although I have no personal experience, I do believe in the integrity of the men who have helped others. One was highly spiritual and would not IMO lie. I have strong faith in both men..Dr John R Christopher (herballegacy.com) and Dr Richard Schulze (herbdoc.com)

      On a rare series of taped lectures given by Dr Christopher when he was teaching students, he tells of a woman depressed who had just been told they had to pull all her healthy teeth due to gum disease and by happenstance, she found the answer and to the dentist's amazement kept all her teeth.

      The actual film may be at google videos if you type in his name as there are several on there but I am not sure if the one in question is online or not. In it a student also verifies what Christopher said by telling his own story about the herbs which helped.

      Luckily, the story of the woman is recounted at this link which also lists the formula that saved her teeth and rid her of the gum disease

      http://www.herballegacy.org/Gums.html

      It is the herbal tooth and gum powder (That includes the oak bark and is more comprehensive and was used in other successful cases) and you can buy bulk herbs in as little as one ounce or sometimes even less so it should be fairly reasonable in price but cheaper if you get locally at health food stores to save shipping costs.

      If using the other recommendations he gives at this link above when you read it, the (snh and the number in parentheses) this sch stands for his book "the school of natural healing" --a wonderful book available often through eBay, Amazon, libraries or health food store..the number refers to the page number..but if you want the proportions to a particular formula in that book, I could look it up for you if you email me as I know how stressful this must be,

      ,I have severe bruxism myself and am grinding my teeth so low I fear loss and need to pull eventually..on one my gums is higher than the teeth as I ground the teeth so low and it is uncomfortable and they had to grind my upper teeth down to relieve the pain of the gums being bitten all the time and my teeth are all getting shorter and shorter and this is upsetting and scary, so I empathize.

      Scroll down to the bottom for the testimony and also read the entire page and here is where the proportions of the formula is found (he has the words HHH and a number after it and that stands for this book linked below and the page number where the formula is found so one can get the right proportions of how much herbs of each to use.

      http://www.amazon.com/Herbal-Home-Health-Care-Christopher/dp/1879436035

      You can usually make herbal tinctures and mixtures at real savings..I generally save 90% over store costs

      But I think I may have the formula found in the home health herbal in another book of his I have as I have used it before..if you are interested, you can email me and I will look it up and send the proportions to you. You can then buy the bulk herbs at a health food store or coop or online. For best results, try to get organic or wild crafted herbs as they are 7-10 times higher in the pytochemicals that cure and prevent diseases.

      In addition, I recommend this formula and the suggestions by Dr Schulze who was the leading student of Dr Christopher and improved many of Christopher's formulas and so forth in his 20 year underground clinic working with people dying and incurable with many miraculous results..he recommends using his tooth and gum formula with a water pick for best results (sometimes these can be found at thrift stores and you can still find replacement brushes if tight on funds although he says you can use it without water pick).

      I also recommend highly his films which can be seen by going to google and typing in the words Richard Schulze and clicking on videos..then watch the save your life series (originally they cost 0 but someone has kindly posted them).

      Go here for your gum disease and order the tooth and gum formula and use both of these men's formulas-- Christopher and Schulze's (or maybe just one)-- and hopefully you will have the same good results others had..

      http://www.herbdoc.com/p56.asp

  33. QUESTION:
    What do all the different people involved in making a movie actually do?
    I have an idea for a film which I think would sell really well. Obviously there are hundreds of thousands of others like me, with a great idea but no method of getting it off of the ground, so I'm harbouring no false illusions of Hollywood stardom! I just have the plot for an entertaining film and would like to share it with others.

    The thing is, if I did just think 'sod it,', and went for it, how do I present my idea? In the form of a script/ abstract? To whom, and how? I can't imagine British film studios just letting a nobody wander in off of the street clutching a script!

    Who do I approach? A director, studio, producer, what? I have no idea what these individuals actually do! And what would I be, in effect- scriptwriter?

    Thanks for your help!

    • ANSWER:
      Okay... This is a long explanation.

      Here's the short of it.

      1. Are you a writer? Then you could write it yourself.
      Read: "The Screenwriters Bible" by David Trottier
      Buy: Final Draft (www.finaldraft.com)
      Once you have written the script, you can pitch it to a producer. In order to pitch, you can try to pitch to an independent production company. Or, you have to know someone (sad, but true).

      2. If you don't write, write a treatment. A treatment is the script in short story format. Then, you can find a writer or producer and pitch it to them.

      It will be very hard for you to get your foot in the door, but it can be done. A good story is a good story. And everyone is looking for content, whether independent or a big studio.

  34. QUESTION:
    How can I make my skin healthy?
    At the moment my skin is really oily. I wash it every day using a face wash, and no matter what product I use, it always becomes oily within the next hour. My diet is really healthy, and I barely ever eat junk food. At the moment my skin is lumpy with black heads on my nose. I can get rid of most of the blackheads, but there is always the same few than never come off. Any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      i used to take pills acnetrex... they work thought they are really expensive..you'll need a waiver for that and you cant get pregnant in 2 years coz it will only lead to a discombobulated baby..:)) Oily skin is usually hereditary but here's the 3 things you should do: cleanse, exfoliate and moisturize... and i tell you not to skip moisturizing because if you try to make your skin extra dry it will only make your oil glands even more active. As of short term solution bring a hanky or small towel or oil film with you at all times... you havent said what age you are so but I'm probably guessing your a teen.. it might just be the hormones but once that is over your skin will be back to normal. If you feel like you cant take it anymore the wisest idea is to go see a dermatologist and discuss with him/her possible treatments.

  35. QUESTION:
    Questions about congenital heart disease?
    Is there anybody in the medical field that can answer a few questions about congenital heart disease in children? It is actually for a short film and for the sake of continuity, I would like to make sure I have all the symptoms and methods of treatment correct. Thank you
    Is there an e mail I can reach you at?

    • ANSWER:
      i am not in the medical field, but i DO have congenital heart disease. And so do many of my friends, so i know quite a bit!

      Your more then welcome to email me :)

  36. QUESTION:
    What should i pack to go camping?
    I feel like i made a list, but its way to short
    are there essentials that im proabbly forgetting?

    • ANSWER:
      Shelter

      Bedding
      __Tent __Sleeping bag
      __Ground cloth/tarp __Sheets/blankets
      __Extra stakes __Pillow
      __Shade tarp/poles/rope/stakes __Air mattress/sleeping pad/cot/tarp
      __Axe or hammer __Air pump
      __Mat for tent entrance __Repair kit for air mattress
      __Dust pan/brush __Utility bags for storage

      Cooking
      __Large water jug & water bucket __Potholders/oven mitts
      __Coolers/ice __Pots and frying pans with lids
      __Thermos __Soap for outside of pots and pans
      __Stove with fuel/propane __Cook utensils-spatula, knife, spoon
      __Matches/lighter __Tongs
      __Charcoal/firewood/buddy burner __Skewers/grill forks
      __Dutch oven/tin can stove/box oven/etc __Can opener/bottle opener
      __Campfire grill/BBQ grill __Folding table
      __Fire starters/newspaper __Dutch oven
      __Tablecloth/thumb tacks/clips __Pie irons
      __Plates & bowls/paper plates & bowls __Mugs/paper cups
      __Silverware/plastic silverware __Mixing bowl
      __Measuring cups __Cutting board
      __Heavy-duty aluminum foil __Ziplock bags
      __Paper towels __Napkins
      __Trash bags __Dish pan
      __Dish soap __Dish rags/towels
      __Clothes pins __Scrub pad/brillo
      __Cooking oil/Pam spray __Seasonings/sugar/condiments
      __Containers for food storage __Potato peeler

      Clothes Personal
      __Shoes/boots __Shower shoes/flip flops
      __Jeans/pant/belt __Towels/washcloth
      __Shorts __Soap in plastic case/shampoo
      __T-shirts __Tooth brush/tooth paste
      __Socks/extra socks __ Deodorant
      __Hat __Comb/brush
      __Bandana __Razor
      __Sweatshirt/jacket __Feminine products
      __Underwear __Toilet paper
      __Sleep clothes __Shower bag or 5 gallon bucket
      __Rain gear __Camping shower/shower pump
      __Swim suit/towel __Other personal items
      __Laundry bag __Personal medications--take extra

      Miscellaneous
      __Sunscreen/chapstick __Flashlight/batteries
      __Lantern with fuel/mantles __Pocket knife
      __Extra batteries/bulbs __Plastic grocery bags
      __Compass/GPS __Binoculars
      __Bug repellant/candles __Rope/clothes line
      __Whistle __Canteen/water bottle/coffee pot
      __Water filters/purification/treatment __Bungi cords/straps
      __Camera/battery/film/video (see photo jigsaw puzzles) __Cards/games/toys/golf
      __Books/magazines (a Kindle would be better) __Duct tape/electrical tape
      __Candles __Notepad/pen
      __Maps/directions __Reservations info./confirmation
      __Misc. tools __Cell phone/charger & 2-way radios/walkie talkies
      __Backpack/fanny pack __Small shovel
      __Fishing gear/license/bait __Safety pins
      __Radio __Money/ID/credit card/quarters
      __Musical instruments/song books __Bikes/helmets
      __Camp chairs __Travel alarm clock
      __Sunglasses __Work gloves
      __Hammock __Umbrella
      __First aid kit __Hand wipes
      __Tissues __Drinks/snacks
      __Saw/axe __Small sewing kit
      __Park map/guidebooks/trail maps __Fire extinguisher
      __Lantern pole or hanger __Hot chocolate/tea bags/coffee
      __Collapsible drying rack __Scissors
      __Popcorn __Watch

  37. QUESTION:
    Advise please!! Which specifications do I need to get camera lenses that can capture details of the iris?
    I want to buy a Nikon Digital Camera, and then fix a special type of lenses that can capture details of the iris. Which specifications do I need to mention? Is there anyone who specialized in Nikon cameras?

    • ANSWER:
      Any 100 year old camera can do that if the lens can focus closely enough.
      Old triple extension bellows cameras were OK, with a shorter than normal focus lens attached to get very close focusing at large image scales.
      This is a Thornton-Pickard, the Rolls Royce of triple extension cameras
      http://randcollins.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/thornton-pickard-royal-ruby-triple-extension-camera-with-roller-blind-shutter.jpg

      Remember physics at school?...the basic lens equation.
      1/f = 1/v + 1/u
      Change the object distance and you change the image distance
      Magnification = image distance/object distance
      M = v/u
      At 1:1 image scale, the image to object distance is 4F.
      That's the film plane to the eyeball you want a picture of for example.
      That 4F is 4x the focal length of the lens so to get 200mm working distance use a 50mm lens and for 400mm working distance use a 100mm lens for a same-size image.
      http://drt3d.blogspot.com/2008/02/basic-lens-equation.html

      Tubes or a bellows unit let you change the image distance so can focus closer...
      It's been very common in hosptal practice for well over 70 years to photograph eye defects, lesions and wounds etc..
      I used my lovely old Exactas for that kind of stuff, and for close-ups of skin lesions etc and microscope work.
      They were made long before auto features appeared on cameras and had no light meters. A separate light meter was used.
      http://www.thecamerasite.net/01_SLR_Cameras/Pages/exacta.htm

      That formula works for far away things too, even how big the Sun is on a photograph or how big a barn is on the film from two miles away using a particular lens and there is a geometrical way to do it too, and a quick way of converting angular sizes to image sizes.
      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110622083741AA3GZAm

      Here is a photograph of an eye, which is easily done with any 35mm film camera or a digital camera having close-up facilities as mentioned.
      http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8782723/Trial-begins-into-stem-cell-treatment-for-sight-loss.html
      More photos
      http://thechive.com/2008/12/01/a-closer-look-at-the-iris-21-photos/

      Close-up lenses
      You can use them on any camera but SLRs are best because then you have a focusing screen on the camera..
      http://www.alanwood.net/photography/close-up-lenses.html

      Extension tubes. You can get them for all interchangable lens cameras.
      My Exacta cameras have extension tubes more than fifty years old.
      http://www.toledo-bend.us/index.asp?ExtTube

      Bellows
      http://www.alanwood.net/photography/bellows.html

      For lighting you need a high speed flash, thyrister controlled, for speed and conveience or you'll have long exposure times for large scale images.
      You must set a very small aperture to get enough depth of field at large image scales so the shutter speed must be longer to compensate or the flash exposure must be higher.
      1/20 000 of a second is fast enough for the flash to catch the iris before the iris closes in response to the flash.
      Set manual flash on the camera and adjust the flash output if it has one.
      At that speed reciprocity failure comes in so you can't trust built in flash meters...
      .No more link space left here (10 max allowed ).
      Look up reciprocity failure for film and digital.
      You can use tissues to cover the flash and reduce the output which will also soften the light for good results, and using the flash on a cable instead of on the camera lets you change the flash to subject distance for more control..
      Some flashguns have full power, 1/2. 1/4/ 1/8 etc
      http://www.amazon.com/Vivitar-285HV-Auto-Professional-Flash/dp/B00004TVSP/ref=dp_cp_ob_p_title_0

  38. QUESTION:
    Can anyone please tell if there is anyplace where one can earn some money selling stories or movie scripts ?
    I need to get some place where i can get a chance to earn some money by selling stories.

    • ANSWER:
      First of all you might like to have a look at my 'Happy Writing Blogspot', You can find lots of interesting posts about
      writing that might give you some interesting insights about
      selling stories or movie scripts, you can find it at:

      http://hpshappywriting.blogspot.com

      For example you can find some interesting insights
      about writing Plot and about important 'ingredients'
      for a 'Bestseller'.

      For what Movie Scripts is concerned, I had a little education in writing Movie Scripts and as far as I undersand you need to be prepared to 'Pitch' your stories 'High Concept', meaning you need to be able to really tell (sell) the story in a 'nutshell' explaining very briefly in a compelling way what it's about and how - and why it is going to effect an audiance, in a way that it convinces a producer that with your Movie Script he or she definitely will have some
      'Hot Property' in his or her hands!

      Personally if I was a Film Producer I would be inclined to initially only have a glance at an about 5 pages of
      'Scenic Treatment' (list of scenes with a short description of what's happening in them) And if that motivates me to read more I would like to read one or more completely written scenes. (complete with dialogues and all) If that motivates me it might motivate to read a whole script etc. etc.

      A place where you can look for buyers might be:

      http://www.hollywoodnetwork.com/hn/producing/index.html

      All the Best,
      To your Happy Inspiration,
      HP

  39. QUESTION:
    I have too many confusing thoughts in my mind all the time, how to control it?
    Actually I always have too many thoughts in my mind which are confusing and disturbing at the same time and lead me to confusion, anxiety, short tempering which is so painful that it doesn't allows me to carry out my normal routine activities and i can't feel myself to be a normal human being. Sometimes suffering reduce but I could not completely eliminate the problem so far despite of a long psychiatric treatment. Can anybody give me a permanent solution for that.

    • ANSWER:
      Focus on positive thinking to put your mind at ease. Watch the documentary called _The Secret_ (2006). Here's a description:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secret_(2006_film)

  40. QUESTION:
    can i leave a mixture of fudge pink moon and conditioner in my extensions overnight?
    will it damage the hair if i leave it in that long? will the colour come out brighter?

    • ANSWER:
      No it wont have any effect anyway it will just make your hair more greasy, you should know that nearly all conditioners dont even really condition hair what they do is coat the outside with a film which makes it appear smoother and silkier for a short while as you know until you apply the conditioner again.

      Best thing for your hair is to buy a bottle of pure jojoba, or coconut, or olive oil warm it up in a bowl for a few seconds apply that to your hair and yr scalp as its good for the scalp. Then wrap your hair in a towel leave it for a few hours, and wash it all out with an oil free shampoo.

      Or buy an expensive treatment based conditioner like kerastase best hair product you can buy from salons normally 25 dollers

  41. QUESTION:
    am supposed to use adobe after effects before or after making the home video?
    (im only using AE for stabilizer since i have a shaky hand). do i have to use adobe premiere, or can i use pinnacle studios and then After Effects?

    • ANSWER:
      From what I understand you are trying to correct jerky motion with After Effects.

      First: Use a tripod, or learn how to stand so you can not be shaky. Nothing looks better then good video in the first place. If you can't shoot with a tripod, lean against a tree or wall, put both feet in front of your body in a wide stance. Hold the camera with one hand and use your other hand to help. Keep your elbows locked, preferably against your body. Also, don't zoom in as far, as zooming in magnifies your shaky motion. Just get closer to your subject instead. Also, take breaks so your muscles don't fatigue, and if you shoot hand-held often, do a few extra push ups and ab crunches in the morning, as stronger muscles will fatigue less.

      Second: Use the image stabilizer feature on your camera. This is a system that detects the actual motion of the camera body and corrects for that in real time. Much more accurate that trying to analyze the video content for jerkiness. This feature only works when you are recording, as it actually measure the physical motion of the camera and adjusts the lens or the CMOS sensor to compensate. Sony and Canon are superb at this because they adjust the lens instead of the video signal, and it looks better and more natural.

      If it's too late and you already have that priceless footage that can't be recreated, try applying the "film look" filter to the footage, or a the very fastest strobe effect (preferably only removing one field). This will make the shaky footage much more watchable and it will also look cool. The illusion is achieved by the fact that you are dropping every even frame and holding the odd ones longer, so that the viewer perceives less motion. Subtlety is the key here. Finally, I would process a little footage first, so you get an idea of what it will look like, but then I would edit and render your home video. After you have a finished short movie, throw it in After Affects. That way the additional treatment will be uniform and you will be able to make other adjustments such as color from scene to scene. The best reason to process this after your edit is that After Affects is slow and you will only be processing footage you need.

  42. QUESTION:
    Why do blacks dodge controversl questions that non-blacks pose to them on here?
    Such questions as

    Why is the black illigetamcy rate 70%
    Why the black crime rate is so high
    Why blacks score lower on standardized test
    Why blacks have a history month.

    Every time the questioner gets attacked and no one is bold enough to address the question and a well thought logical way. If you understood how the world works these questions are quite easy to answer.
    Neutral. Yes I've noticed you are one of the rare few

    • ANSWER:
      I answer those questions all the time. It just get tiring when you take those askers to task and they block you and ask it again. Qualifying your blackness with being Kenyan isn't going to make you any-less black in the eyes of people around you.

      Black illegitimacy: Black America has gone through of series of turbulent periods like the Civil Rights Movement, The Black Power Movement, the Crack Epidemic in which urban centers were flooded with drugs, guns and Planned Parenthoods, through mass-encarceration and Hyper-encarceration, which emerged as the last cogs of the state as a response to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act, and the fact that blacks were finally able to move into white neighborhoods. This and much more was all in the span of about 20 to 30 years. The black legitimacy rate was still about 65 in the 1965 and did and inverse by the 90s. But like another user said, most races have devalued marriage since then, because the culture in this country through rap in the case of blacks and through other forms of media in the case of whites inculcates men with a fear of marriage and women with a fear of not being "independent women".

      Why the black crime rate is so high: That's relative anyways. I answer that question once a day. When another race is responsible for deciding what crime is, of course your crime rates will be high. Drug laws disproportionately impact black Americans. There was the Bloggs Act of 1951, the disparity between Crack and Cocaine at a 100:1 sentence disparity, there's racial profiling, blacks get 20% longer sentences, are more likely to get a public defender, less likely to get a jury of our peers, less likely to get a pardon, a sentence commutation, or a change of venue, most police officers are white and a whole list of other things. Do you really think poor blacks commit more crimes than rich whites? Maybe you do, but poor blacks don't control the media. Like I said, mass incarceration was used as a response to the civil rights movement. If you're into criminology you'll realize that the explosion in the incarcerated population in this country, or in any country coincides with economic downturns. In this country it had to do with the end of WWII and fixing Europe's economy. All those factory jobs were outsourced over night and blacks became a surplus, redundant population. Prison jobs pay pennies, don't have to pay workers comp or insurance, don't give sick days, you can't show up late, etc. Most military material is made in prisons. The prisons are really just a way to depress wages and ensure that there's always a population that is relegated to low wage work. Capitalism and a large PIC go hand in hand.

      Why blacks score so low on standardized test: My assumption was that being taught for a large portion of your childhood that you have no history, couple with being raised by parents who don't teach it to you, on one hand causes some youth to take a disinterest in learning or in other cases causes us to take a hyper-interest in learning. It's just that simple. But there are also cases where these kids might be raised in single parent homes where the parent works a lot and doesn't have time to walk the child through school. These kids fall by the way side. If you don't have someone with you telling you how vital learning is for you future, than you're not going to know why you're in school.

      Why blacks have a history month: In order to ensure white's continue to hate blacks. Not that every other month isn't white history month. But we know that any time blacks get a fraction of anything, white's get mad about it. B.E.T (white owned) plays Blaxploitation films (white racism in black-face) during black history month. Most blacks don't celebrate in anyways. It's clearly a cop out, it's the shortest month in the year, and gives the silent treatment to our history before the slave trade, which is the richest in the world.

  43. QUESTION:
    What liquids is used to photographs?
    What liquid do people use to develop photographs, because i see them use them in movies. It cant be water cause then i can develop a photograph anywhere.
    So why liquid do they use to develop photographs?

    • ANSWER:
      The process
      Whether processing at an amateur or commercial level, the film is then treated in chemical baths. These baths are maintained at closely monitored temperatures and specific time periods. When making archival prints or prints of high quality, the minimum number of chemical steps are used. In particular additional stages such as hypo-eliminators or wash-aids are avoided because of uncertainty about the long term impact of such treatments on print stability and permanence.

      The developer, which makes the latent image visible.
      A stop bath, which stops the action of developer - typically a dilute solution of Acetic acid. (Sometimes plain water is used for this step.) This neutralises alkaline developer carry-over and removes excess developer reducing cross contamination of the acid fixer.
      The fixer makes the image permanent and light-resistant by dissolving any remaining silver halides. The fixer is often referred to as "hypo".
      An optional "Hypo Clearing Agent" or washing aid bath, which renders fixer more easily removable by the washing process. Before the use of a washing aid, the majority of fixer is removed in a brief rinse in water. The wash aid helps remove the remaining hypo.
      Clean water wash to remove any fixer, as it is corrosive and can dissolve the elemental silver over time leading to staining and fading. The washing process can be shorter in time if a washing aid is used after the fixer.
      Final immersion in a film conditioner is commonplace. This is a solution of alcohol, wetting agents and formaldehyde in de-ionised water. This hardens the film surface, helps drying and eliminates drying marks from hard water.
      Film is then dried in a dust free environment, and finally (if roll sized film)cut, and put into protective sleeves.

      Monochrome (black & white) reversal processing
      Black and white reversal processing (to make black and white positives) has two additional stages. Following first development, the developing action is stopped, the film is then bleached to remove the elemental silver produced by development and it is then either exposed to light or chemically fogged prior to a second development. This allows the silver salts that were not exposed in the camera to be developed into silver forming a positive image. Then, the film is fixed and washed conventionally.

      Color processing
      Color negative developing (process C41) and color print developing (process RA-4) are very similar. The principal difference is in the color developer formula in the first step; and the combining of the bleach and fixer steps in process RA-4 with a bleach-fix mixture (blix), which dissolves both the silver halides and the elemental silver leaving only a dye image. Mixing the bleach and fixture in process RA-4 is optional, and is done to speed the process in roller-transport processors.

      In color reversal processing the film is developed in an MQ black and white type developer, the development is then stopped in the first wash, the film is chemically fogged in the reversal step, and is then developed in a color developer. Next, the film is processed in a pre-bleach which combines a formaldehyde preservative, then into bleach. Optionally, a wash step is used to extend the life of the next step, the fixer. After fixing there is a final wash step using a small dose of surfactant, then drying.

      Further processing
      For black and white emulsions both negative and positive, further processing may react the silver with other elements such as selenium or sulfur to produce a more permanent image. In these cases the silver in the image is changed to silverselenide or -sulfite, which are more resistant to oxidising agents in the atmosphere. The fact that a successful selenium- or sulfidetoning depends on correct fixation and rigorous washing to remove residual thiosulfate also contributes to the longetivity of thusly toned emulsions. In other cases, the silver may be chemically bleached using a Potassium dichromate solution in strong mineral acid and the result washed film then re-processed to produce unusual colored effects. Sepia, red and blue colors may be obtained in this way. If color negative film is processed in conventional black and white developer, and fixed and then bleached with a Hydrochloric acid and potassium dichromate solution, the resultant film, once exposed to light, can be redeveloped in color developer to produce an unusual pastel color effect.

  44. QUESTION:
    Why aren't patients shielded when they are receiving radation therapy?
    My friend (who is 28) is getting radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease, early Stage IIA, involving lymph nodes in the neck and the middle of the chest. I know that dentists routinely make patients put on lead aprons when they take teeth X-rays so that the rest of the patients body, especially the thyroid and pelvic areas receive very little radiation. Why don't radiation therapists shield the patient's pelvis when radiation is being given to the neck and chest?

    • ANSWER:
      Gonadal shielding (pelvic shielding) would do nothing to reduce the amount of radiation the ovaries or testes receive when a patient is getting external beam radiation for a malignancy in the neck and chest area. In the treatment of Hodgkin's disease involving the neck and medastinal lymph nodes, the typical energy selection used is 6 MV photons produced by a linear accelerator. These are high-energy photons and very readily pass through any type of lead apron. That is why the walls (and floor and roof if not in a one-story building) of a radiation therapy treatment room consist of several feet of thick concrete plus other types of shielding embedded in the walls. A regular X-ray machine, by contrast, produces very "sort" radiation which is easily blocked by a lead apron.

      All radiation therapy machines, whether linear accelerators or Co-60 machines, have collimators whose purpose is to reduce the amount of radiation scattering from the machine to areas not in the treatment field. After the radiation oncologist determines exactly what area(s) he wants to treat, the patient goes through treatment simulation. Ordinary X-rays are taken of the exact area to be treated, measurements are taken, the source of the X-ray is exactly the same distance from the patients as the source of the treatment machine will be, and the collimator openings are determined. The radiation oncologist takes these special X-ray films and draws the exact field to be treated, covering all of the tumor plus a margin of safety, but excluding as much normal tissue as possible. The drawings are then taken by the block-cutter whose job it is to produce custom-designed lead blocks that match exactly what has been drawn on the film by the radiation oncologist. So, besides, the reduction of scatter by the primary and secondary collimators, additional field definition (and scatter reduction) is provided by the custom-designed blocks. The result is very little scattered radiation from the treatment machine itself.

      Most of the scattered radiation is actually internal scatter, where the photons (remember these can be considered either particles or waves as with everything on the EM spectrum) bounce off tissues in the treatment field and can go anywhere - toward the wall, the roof, the floor, or elsewhere inside the patient. For the particular patient being treated, the amount of radiation that the gonads receive is very small, but this internal scatter can never be blocked. It is the reason why radiation therapists cannot be in the treatment room while the machine is giving radiation. Their cumulative radiation exposure would be far past tolerance in a very short period of time since they may treat 25 or 30 patients a day, 5 days a week, 52 weeks a year.

      Back to the gonads. Internal scatter from the treatment of Hodgkin's disease involving the neck and mediastinum does not deliver very much radiation to the ovaries or testes. One would probably exceed the amount of radiation exposure received from that radiation by taking several trips by plane per year. One of my best friends got Hodgkin's disease in college (over 30 years ago). He had Stage IIA disease that involved both sides of the neck and the upper mediastinal lymph nodes. He was treated with radiation alone. He has 3 normal children who are now in their 20s and late teens. Obviously no problems with fertility.

      If your friend is a man, he does not have to worry about any genetic changes in future sperm cells. However, if your friend is a woman, there is a very small chance that some genetic damage may be done to some egg cells. The medical literature documents a very small increase of birth defects due to genetic damage induced by prior neck/medastinal irradiation compared to control groups who received no radiation therapy at all.

  45. QUESTION:
    How can I get rid of period cramps?
    Almost every time I get my period, I get horrible cramps that take a while to go away. How can I quickly and effectively get rid of them? I've tried painkillers and a heating pad, but they both take a while to work. Help! D:

    • ANSWER:
      Rather than just trying to ease cramps, try making changes leading up to your period to prevent getting cramps too, here are some ideas for short-term and long-term help with cramps...

      Diet - most important factor; small regular meals of foods rich in essential fatty acids, fresh veggies and fruits (bananas especially), lean proteins and whole grains. Avoid processed foods, simple starches like white breads, heavy dairy products, fatty meats, salt, caffeine, and refined sugars.

      Supplements; flaxseed (500mg 3 times p/d), vitamin B6 (100mg once p/d), magnesium (100mg every 2 hours during period), vitamin E in d-alpha tocopherol form (50mg 3 times p/d). Or simply get a good supplement with calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron for menstrual health, and vitamin C to balance progesterone/estrogen.

      Try herbal teas; raspberry leaf, yarrow, lemon balm, black haw, chamomile, red raspberry, wild strawberry, valerian - from health stores, staff there can suggest other ideas too. Also help regulate your hormones by taking Evening Primrose oil, Black Cohosh capsules, or Chaste Tree tincture daily - you can get these from health stores and some supermarkets too.

      Painkillers!
      Anti-inflammatory’s; Ibuprofen or Aspirin. Natural; cell salts every 5-10 minutes until pain stops. Non-pill; clary sage oil rubbed into stomach, which supports estrogen production. Ask your doctor for Mefenamic Acid which blocks syntheses of prostaglandin F2 alpha which causes cramps, take 3 times p/d for the first 4 days of your period.

      Sanpro
      Tampons are well-known to increase cramps as they're bad for vaginal health, also they can tug on vaginal walls and expand into the cervix. Switch to menstrual cups - internal like tampons but with many advantages, including being able to lessen or stop cramps.

      If you smoke - quit. If you don’t have the willpower use Easyway, it requires no willpower and has a 90% success rate. http://www.allencarr.com

      Exercise - anything to stretch abdomen and improve breathing, yoga is particularly good, this video shows postures for cramps - http://www.videojug.com/film/yoga-postures-for-menstrual-pain-relief

      Acupressure - a professional may be good (FYI chiropractic case may also help), but you can stimulate pressure points yourself, this video shows what points to use - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afYHM9y4lJY

      Masturbation - helps by improving relaxation and circulation, during menstruation it’s easier to reach orgasm too so more enjoyable.

      Hot/Cold - heat or cold packs can help, if heat works for you then try a warm bath, which will also help you relax and feel more comfortable.

      Attitude - we’re constantly bombarded with negative ideas about menstruation; awkward, painful, gross, etc. Really it’s none of these things, but if you believe otherwise then of course you’re going to be miserable during your period and this will affect you physically. Women with more positive attitudes to menstruation are not only more likely to find better ways to deal with periods, but generally they have happier periods.

      If all else fails - see a doctor.
      Some people will tolerate cramps thinking it is ‘part of being a woman’ – it is not, if all else fails cramps could be a sign of a more serious underlying problem. Your doctor should run tests to rule out problems such as endometriosis, and offer appropriate treatment.

      Hormonal birth control.
      Some doctors may attempt to prescribe birth control as a quick fix, this may stop cramps by suppressing your cycles, and so depending on the cause of the cramps this may make them worse or just hide the problem. Birth control is an extreme method given the possible side-effects, a doctor should always try to treat the underlying problem, not try to pass you off with birth control.

      Stamp Out Cramps (Without the Pill) - http://www.scarleteen.com/article/pink/stamp_out_cramps_without_the_pill

  46. QUESTION:
    Has anybody else experienced headaches like this?
    Since childhood I've experienced headaches where suddenly all sounds around me seem to slow down and the movements I make feel strange and slowed down too. The only way to describe it properly is it's like the slow motion you see on films.
    It usually lasts about ten minutes.
    Doctors have said it's migraine but I'm not sure.
    Can any body relate?

    • ANSWER:
      OK It really depends on the type of headache you have. So I will give you the major types of headaches and the symptoms. More than likely this is a cervicogenic headache and many strange symptoms can occur with these (including the ones you mentioned).

      Migraine- One sided, more common in females, Sensitivity to light, pain behind one eye, throbbing, brought on by bright lights, chocolate, cheese, red wine or menstrual cycle.
      Can also have an aura and have a funny taste.

      Hypertension- At the top and back of your head. Throbbing. You usually wake up with this headache and after about 3 hours it subsides. Usually caused by High Blood pressure. Need medicines to reduce blood pressure.

      Cluster Headache, adolescent to adult, more common in males, one sided, usually over temple or eye area, may have a blood shot eye, wakes you up at night, runny nose, sweating, tearing of the eyes, Worse in spring or fall, lasts 15min- 2hrs. relief for a little bit and then comes right back.

      Muscular tension- A band-like distribution around head (like wearing a very tight head band). Brought on by stress, tension, fatigue, work.

      Temporal Arteritis- Only over age 50. One sided over temple area, pain in jaw, burning, aching throbbing, sensitive scalp, fever. tender arteries. If visual symptoms- go to ER with this one.

      Cervicogenic(neck caused)- Pain in upper neck and back of head. Pain when moving the head. daily, reduced movement in neck area. Brought on by stress, head movement and head alignment. Can mimic a migraine including nausea. If it is a head and neck related alignment you can have temporal headaches or headaches that arc from behind the ear forward. Possible sharp pain behind your ear at the base of the skull along with correlated shoulder pain. Can last for days and weeks at a time until misalignment is corrected. Very little or only short term relief when taking headache medications.

      Sinus- Localized, certain positions are worse, steady throb, worse in the morning.

      Subarachnoid Hemorrhage- abrupt onset, constant stiff neck, feels like someone hit you in the head, Caused by high blood pressure, stress or aneurysm. Life threatening.

      Brain Tumor- Onset morning and evening, varies from mild to severe, may throb, wakes you up at night, symptoms getting worse, neck stiffness worse than ever.

      Subdural Hematoma- caused by trauma. It is a slow bleed in the brain. Natasha Richardson died from something like this.

      OK now that I have told you the types of headaches. Here is what you do for them.

      Migraines, muscular tension, cervicogenic, and some sinus and cluster headaches can be helped by a chiropractor. If it is sinus, you need to ask the chiropractor if they have a sinus/cranial treatment (not all do).

      For Hypertension, cluster, temporal arteritis (unless it has visual component) and brain tumor- go see your doctor

      For Temporal arteritis with visual impairment, subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma, go to the Emergency Room right away.

      I hope this helps.

      I wish you the best.

  47. QUESTION:
    Anyone else watch the film about the prisoner Charles Bronson?
    Do you think he is insane?

    or violent due to some brain chemistry imbalance ?

    • ANSWER:
      I've not seen the film, but have read his book, which features some of his cartoons he draws too.

      It's interesting you've raised the question, as in his book he's fairly open in speaking of his troubles, which allude to something of both, depending upon the exact situation being described.

      There are clearly also other key factors to consider - from his training etc, he's very strong (I assume the film featured or hinted of some of the feats he has achieved - eg. 1000 press ups in a short space of time, I can't recall now what that was etc?) Plus the virtual life in prison, and the know difficulties that can create for people - eg. institutionalisation. People who criticise the death penalty seem to forget the affects of long periods of time spend in prison, and the destroying effects that has upon the body and mind. As he's admitted at times, he cannot adjust to life outside of prison, it is virtually alien to him, the matters we commonly encounter and overcome.

      The reinforcing pattern of treatment in prison for him, creates a vicious circle of behaviours - his reputation can precede him, and so the guards get @Rey from the outset, provoking him, which he is clearly sensitive to, so he reacts in the ways he's used to = violence. Psychologists call this as "learn ed behaviour" when the pattern becomes self reinforcing like this. This is incredibly difficult cycle to break, as it's become virtually habitual - akin to an alcoholic, as the endorphins are released from physical exercise, and adrenaline from the violence that ensues.

      For me, I see him as a sort of tiger in a cage that gets prodded, until it growls, and swipes back. It's happened over and over, so he keeps reacting in the same way. I feel kinda sorry for him in some ways, but at the same time, I think it would take an immense amount of psychological work to help him out, and a controlled positive environment. Realistically, that's not going to happen, so I suspect the situation will remain the same. Depending on the definition of insanity (see a dictionary or Wiki) chosen for here, I would say using your terms, he's slightly insane, but also a product of environment and circumstances which have increased the insanity aspect you're speaking of.

  48. QUESTION:
    what would make a cats eye cloudy?
    I noticed that my male cat has an eye that seems to be getting cloudy. He does not act as if it bothers him. Is he going blind?

    • ANSWER:
      A cloudy eye or increased opacity of the eye is associated with reduced transparency of either the cornea, the fluid media within the eye, or the lens. This change may be described as a "film" covering the eye or as an increased cloudy "whiteness" to the eye. Cloudiness of the eye may or may not be associated with a reduction in vision. The causes of a cloudy eye typically fall into one of the following categories:

      Cloudiness of the cornea, which may occur with corneal infections, corneal scarring, infiltrative inflammatory diseases of the cornea, fatty infiltration within the cornea, or corneal edema (fluid accumulation)

      Cloudiness of the aqueous humor, which is the fluid that circulates within the front chamber of the eye. This may be due to the accumulation of white blood cells, protein, fatty lipids or blood.

      Opacification or whitening of lens from cataract formation.

      Disorders of the vitreous body, which is a gelatinous fluid between the lens and retina. These may include hemorrhage or inflammation.

      WHAT TO WATCH FOR

      Physical change in the appearance of one or both eyes
      Possible decrease in vision with changes in behavior
      Possible squinting. Some causes of a cloudy eye are painful; others are not.
      Possible discharge from the eye
      Possible redness to the eye

      DIAGNOSIS

      Diagnostic tests are essential in determining the precise cause of the cloudy eye. Tests may include:

      Complete medical history and physical examination

      Complete ophthalmic examination including fluorescein staining of the cornea, Schirmer tear test, tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy.

      Complete blood count (CBC) and biochemistry serum tests

      Additional diagnostic tests may include:

      Cytology, or microscopic examination of any inflammatory changes in the cornea

      Bacterial culture of an infected cornea

      Aspirate and analysis of any cloudy fluid from within the eye

      Ultrasound examination of the eye if the retina cannot be examined

      Gonioscopy of the normal eye if glaucoma is suspected. This uses an optical instrument called a gonioscope to examine the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye.

      Certain serologic tests for infectious diseases

      TREATMENT

      Successful treatment depends on obtaining an accurate diagnosis as to what tissue of the eye is cloudy and what is the underlying cause of the problem.

      HOME CARE

      Optimal treatment for your cat requires a combination of home and professional veterinary care. Follow-up examinations can be critical to your pet's health. Also, do not delay in bringing your cat to the hospital for initial examination as some causes of a cloudy eye may result in a loss of vision within a very short period of time.

      In addition, do the following:

      Observe the eye at least twice daily. Signs that may indicate a worsening condition include more obvious inflammation (redness), increased or altered discharge from the eye, pain (usually evident as squinting) or loss of vision.

      If your cat's vision is compromised, minimize stress and risk of injury by confining him/her to a safe area until the cause of the problem is determined.

      Do not allow your cat to rub or self-traumatize the eyes. To prevent self-inflicted damage you may need to obtain a protective collar (called an Elizabethan collar or E-collar) from your veterinarian.

      Do not administer human over-the-counter medicines such as Visine or other ophthalmic products designed to "reduce eye redness" or irritation as the underlying cause of the problem must be identified.

      Administer all medications as prescribed and alert your veterinarian if you have any difficulty treating your cat.

  49. QUESTION:
    How to make your hair grow faster?!?
    please help my mom cut my hair REALLY short and now i look terrible! any home remedies or anything! Im really reaally upset

    • ANSWER:
      1- Use a brush with natural boar bristles.
      2- Don't braid or put your hair in a ponytail when it is still wet.
      3- cut on the chemical treatments such as bleaching, perms, coloring or highlighting.
      4- Minimize heat styling with things such as hot combs, hair dryers and curling irons.
      5- Although the best thing to do, is to avoid using heat styling, it is still important to dry your hairs roots after
      washing it.
      6. Maintain a healthy diet - Eat eggs/meat/ fruits/vegetables/etc
      7. Keep it trimmed
      8-Massage the scalp - It helps the circulation going on your head
      9. Don’t wash your hair every day
      10. Comb after wash it - Dont Brush it
      11. Always Use Heat Protectant when heat styling.
      12- use a deep conditioner once a week
      13- apply Moroccan oil or Argan oil on your hair every night before you go to sleep (They can be found in pretty much any store)
      14- brush it once everyday to get the natural oils from your scalp to your hair so it makes it more healthier
      15- Wash your hair with a Sulfate free shampoo and conditioner
      16- Do braids in your hair before going to sleep, it helps with the growing process
      17- Home remedies could also help.
      18- Never use elastic bands to secure hair unless they have fabric covering them.

      home remedy:
      get some olive oil (nothing expensive)into a microwaveable bowl. Heat it up until its warm (don't make it hot, we don't want scalp burn).
      Then pour it onto your hair and massage thoroughly. Wrap your hair in cling film to keep it in place and
      keep the heat it, stick a towel over it if u like. Leave it 20 mins then wash it out using shampoo only!, dont use ANY conditioner, not even a 2 in 1, it will leave your hair like chips, u wont need any conditioner for about 3 days.

  50. QUESTION:
    My hair is breaking off, REALLY BAD! How can i stop it?
    I've tried alot of things including deep conditioning and triming my hair really short, but nothing seems to work.
    oh and i dont use heat often, maybe i flat iron my hair like once a month, and thats it.

    • ANSWER:
      what heat products are you using? hairdryer/curling tong/straighteners etc???
      You need a product that is going to put the moisture back into the hair & a weekly protector.
      Below are the items we use on clients etc these are very good & a decent price unless you want to go into the big bucks.
      »»»All Soft Shampoo
      cleans with an ultra-rich formula that leaves hair soft and smooth.
      »»»All Soft Conditioner
      smooths, detangles, nourishes and controls frizz for shiny, touchable hair.
      »»»All Soft Silk Fuel
      durable softening treatment instantly transforms the texture of dry, brittle hair to silky softness. Hair has lasting manageability, supple movement and high-shine.
      http://www.redken.com/products/displayProduct.cfm?p=531
      and
      »»»Reconstructor Compatibility and elasticity are restored leaving hair healthier, stronger and more pliable. Increases the longevity of color and texturizing services.
      »»» Leave-In Protector
      http://www.lanza.com/products/display_products_overviews.sd?iid=9

      Wash hair with the redken after washing use the conditioner,leave conditioner on for one min after apply the conditioner use your fingers as a comb & comb through the hair.
      Use the all soft silk fuel twice a week, after applying to the hair cover hair in cling film (keep the cling film away from the face) & use your dryer evenely over the full head for about 2 mins this will open up the structure of the hair so the product will soak in better.
      You need to alternate between the soft silk fuel & the reconstructor
      Twice a week use the constructor apply the same as the soft silk fuel with the same method with the cling film & hairdryer.
      use the leave inprotector after washing your hair, try limiting to washing your hair every other day not every day & do not comb/brush your hair more than twice a day this can add to the breakage, also we all know we need to use the hairdryer etc but try to limit using it the same with any other heat products your using.

      If your wanting the more expensive luxurious shampoos etc use Alterna White Truffle Luxury Shampoo this is very good & the Alterna White Truffle Luxury conditioner you can pick them both up for about 0.


short film treatment