Short Films African American

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What movies best portray the representation of race?
    I have a paper to write and i need to know a current film that represents race (African-American,Latino...etc). I am looking for films that consist of the "typical black" or the "short-fat latino" things to that nature. I would appreciate a film that consists of a lot of stereo types and the representations of race.

    • ANSWER:
      Brief but to the point: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tWQFcPEuRJY

  2. QUESTION:
    Kid-friendly movies about injustice that aren't about African-American civil rights?
    I'm student teaching 6th grade right now and I came in partway into a long unit about "injustice", which I am supposed to keep planning. They've spent a few weeks on African-American civil rights, which is of course important and relevant, however, I'd like to use some other forms of such injustice that has gone on or is going on around the world.

    Are there any kid-friendly movies, short films, or even documentaries that I could show about anything from the Irish troubles to apartheid South Africa?

    • ANSWER:
      Norma Rae- about the labor movement Vendetta( 1999 tv movie)- about the lynching of Italians in New Orleans

  3. QUESTION:
    Any idea where I can find a classic (short) film that has white people portraying african americans?
    Need to find a video that has a white person doused in make up trying to be an African American.

    • ANSWER:
      Othello did that but it's not a short film.
      http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0059555/

  4. QUESTION:
    Compare black buffoon characters that you have seen in film or television and compare them to white characters?
    Compare black buffoon characters that you have seen in film or television and compare them to white characters that are also used for comedic affect. Is there a difference in how you view black caricatures versus white caricatures?

    This question is for my african american history class and I don't know how to answer it. Any suggestions? What do you think? Is there really a distinction between who the characters are portrayed?

    • ANSWER:
      Well for myself the "black buffoon" in movies in the past were the worst because the character was always literally made to be dumb, couldn't speak properly and could do the simplest tasks. However in modern movies were the "white buffoon" is the fall guy and he can be dumb but it's made with a sort of charm. He can have any job even if he's bad at it, he can go out with any "pretty" girl even if he's obnoxious and he will have slang people will understand him. In short the "white buffoon" is a human being with faults but the "black buffoon" of past times was not a proper human being but child-like, simple, ridiculous and a clown. You can watch old movies, even movies from the 60s and 70s and see for yourself, make notes, and compare the later movies with the "white buffoon" and you'll see these conclusions yourself and others.

  5. QUESTION:
    What can be done to create better understanding of modern Native Americans?
    Almost daily on the Internet and often in real life, I read and hear fallacies and stereotypes about Native American peoples. What can be done to help non-Native Americans understand how Native Americans live, how they want to be perceived, how they can be better respected and their culture protected instead of appropriated?

    This isn't a guilt-mongering question. Nobody can travel back and undo past wrongs. But we live together now, and we can make today and tomorrow better.

    • ANSWER:
      Unfortunately, it's a little bit late to undo the heinous appropriation -- theft -- of our lands and centuries of attempts to force us to assimilate our cultures with that of white america.

      There are plenty of books written by Indians about Indians, so I can only hope people with genuine concerns will read the right books and articles. For current events and news relative to American Indians, subscribe to authentic native newspapers: News from Indian Country and the Cherokee Phoenix are only a couple ... there are a number that are considered "legitimate" by Indians and others that aren't.

      Many non-Indians mistake celebrity "Indians" as representative of our peoples. It's sad to say that some of these celebrity Indians -- real native men once powerful leaders in the American Indian Movement -- now resort to wearing clip-on braids, and not just for theatrical roles.

      Many Euro-Americans waste money by attending sham "powwows" thrown by non-Indians for the sake of making money from non-Indians who attend to watch bastardized versions of sacred Native dances and by buying illegal non-Indian-made arts and crafts. Even worse, every day there are thousands of illegitimate items hawked on eBay as "Native-made."

      There also are beautifully filmed movies -- major box office hits! --that continue the stereotyping of native peoples and their indigenous cultures. "Dances with Wolves" is but one example. It was a beautiful film, but when Kevin Costner, the white soldier-hero, fell in love out on the Plains, didn't anyone (other than real Indians) question why the "Indian woman" he fell for was written in the script as a white woman raised by Indians?) Most films that have attempted to accurately depict contemporary Indians and their culture, never seem make it to theaters across the land. The stories are often not as pretty as non-Indians want to pay ":good money" to see.

      American Indians in the US live in big cities, small towns, and on farms. Many of us still live -- in the quiet desperation of poverty -- on reservations, such as Pine Ridge and Rosebud, SD. In Canada, our First Nations people live much the same way.

      To better understand the day to day lives of reservation Indians, take a month to visit those rezes, or spend a few days deep in the Cherokee Nation around Tahlequah, OK, or read up on what's still going on with the "resolved" issue of forced relocation at Big Mountain (Navajo-Hopi land dispute created during the Reagan Administration, 30 years ago): http://www.bsnorrell.blogspot.com. I think most Euro-Americans would be stunned by the level of poverty and inadequate living conditions of Indians whose families have been on reserves for 200 years.

      You've asked a question that's been asked by others for hundreds of years. It's much the same as if the question were asked about African-Americans. The answers are never short and sweet, and they often tend to make many Euro-Americans uncomfortable, if not totally defensive.

      You're right that past wrongs can't be undone. Let's hope that the future is kinder than the past to our native peoples.

  6. QUESTION:
    The best flat iron to use on course hair?
    I have thick African American hair but its short because I just got it cut. So I would like to know whats the best kind flat iron to for my hair.
    Please leave links if you have them. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      As a stylist, I have used a lot of flat irons/hair straighteners, including Sedu, Hai, Infrashine, Chi, Paul Mitchell, Solia, Big Sexy, Andis, Babyliss Ghd, T3, Kenta etc. You should get a Professional hair straightener, they style much better and faster, and most importantly, they protect your hair.

      In terms of performance:

      The best ones are: Sedu, Kenta, Solia, Infrashine, Ghd. These are top of the line professional brands

      Above average: Chi, Hai, Paul Mitchell,

      Average: T3, Big Sexy, Andis, Babyliss

      Below Average: Conair, Vidal Sassoon, Revlon, Bed Head etc. These are cheap consumer brands that you will find in drugstore. If you care about your hair, do NOT buy them.

      === Flat Iron Hair Straighteners FAQ ======

      Q: What size should I choose?

      A: For most people, 1", 1-1/4" or 1.5" are all good choices. If you have very thick, coarse, long or ethic hair, bigger size (1.5" or 2") will save you some time. If you have thin, fine hair, get a smaller one (1" or 3/4").

      Q: What temperature should I should on my hair?

      A: Based on my expereince, 380F is the average temperature to use. If you hair is thick and coarse, bump it up a bit, if you hair is fine or overprocessed, start it at somewhere 300F, and try it. If the setting does not work well for you, increase a bit until you get a setting that works well for you but does not burn your hair. Trial and error.

      === Helpful Flat Iron Instruction Video ====

      How to Curl Hair With Straightener

      http://www.folica.com/info/curl-hair-flat-iron.htm

      http://videojug.com/film/how-to-curl-hair-with-straighteners-2

      How to Use a Flat Iron

      How to Add Volume to Your Hair:

      How to Create Sexy Waves with a Flat Iron

      How to Flip your Hair:

  7. QUESTION:
    How can I retain what I learn from everyday things to school?
    do have good short term memory and Im a young University Student.
    But U feel like I can't retreive my (long term) knowledge, when I wan't to.or if i do I'm not very sure of it anymore
    I know there are memory tequniques but it's not practical for everything.
    But my strength isn memory is visulaization/imagination..that how I retreive info a lot of the times

    Some give me some guidance and help.

    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      What I do is to apply things that I am learning. I don't just think about school stuff when I'm in class. For instance, if I'm learning about economics, it's interesting to look in the business section of the paper or things like that. Now I'm in education, and if I learn a new technique for helping students learn a subject I'll try it the next day in class and see how I like it. When I was learning about African American theater I took time to watch movies of the plays outside of class. A lot of times I really enjoyed the films and could relate the storyline to other films I liked. If you're constantly working with the information it is a lot easier to remember.

  8. QUESTION:
    I'm looking for a short video about african-americans?
    I'm doing a presentation about that topic and I was thinking about showing a short documentation or a short film (about 5-15 minutes). One which has something to do with african-americans :)
    If any of you has an idea, then please tell me! 😀

    • ANSWER:
      Ew why?!?

  9. QUESTION:
    Who were some of the best 1930s African American character actors?
    The roles African Americans could get in the movies were limited in the 1930s- but there were some actors that appeared in many films, but usually in demeaning roles though, as cooks or maids...

    What were the names of some of these African american actors ...One African American actor I've seen in a Three Stooges short and some other films...
    What are some of the very talented, but largly unknown African american actors of the '30s?

    Butterfly mcQueen?

    • ANSWER:
      Eartha Kitt
      Pearl Bailey
      Lena Horne
      Dorothy Dandridge

  10. QUESTION:
    Why are most of the Ducks in Disney cartoons and comics white?
    Most of the Ducks (funny animal ducks, that is) in Disney cartoons were based on white pekin ducks - white farm ducks. But why are most of the Ducks in Disney cartoons (theatrical cartoons and shorts, tv shows and comics) white? Did anyone else ever notice that? Isn't that like a form of subliminal racism?
    But you all are forgetting, they use white paint when they ink and paint these characters in cartoons.

    • ANSWER:
      So your real question is whether Disney was racist or not, am i right?
      There have been many discussions about it and I personally do not know if it was or not. But let's look a little back:
      Take for example King Louie from Jungle Book which was performed by Louis Prima.
      Quote: "The characterization of King Louie HAS Been frequently cited example of racial stereotyping as year in Disney films. However, in HIS 2004 book The Gospel According to Disney, Mark Pinsky asserts That a child in the current environment (as opposed to in the late 1960s) would not discern Any racial dimension to the portray. Pinsky Also relates Orlando sentence's film critic Jay Bogar's Assertion That "the Primates Could Be Perceived as Representing African Americans in a time of turmoil, But [That Bogar] saw no Racism in the portray. "(Pinsky offers neither a citation for this quotation cloud Assertion.)"
      End quote
      Were very many pictures that were considered racist and that was just an example.
      You want more? The Crows from Dumbo, Sebastian and his song "Under the Sea", the blackfishes, "the duke of soul", and even Uncle Remus who when the movie had its world premiere in 1946 in Atlanta, James Baskett, the actor who played Remus, was not allowed to attend.
      So you see? There have been many discussions about it and even if Disney was racist or not, his films have delighted millions of children and adults alike, white or black, and few were those who complained about the so-called racist sublimated messages. If you really want to look for the needle in the haystack, you can find many forums on this and I suggest you go there. If not, enjoy Disney movies like me and everyone else and stop being such a racist....

  11. QUESTION:
    why african americans becoming influenced so easily by television?
    I see a rapper grabs himself on TV while singing,the next thing you know all black men when walking or dancing grab themselves or like walking cool that was in fashion many years ago.

    • ANSWER:
      It's not just African Americans, it's all Americans who are influenced by what ever they watch on television or in films. Sadly their are quite a large percentage of Americans who naively believe what they see on television is true or fact.

      Like with the 2012 garbage they are constantly showing only on American television and no where else in the world.

      Also their are many Americans who are global armchair critics, thinking they know all about the world from what they seen on a television set. Even though they never owned a passport or foreign traveled outside the United States.

      Over seas we find it a odd how, short lived 20 years ago fad fashions as Goth, Punk and Emo most are parents wore in the 80's, is popular in the USA in 2009. So are Rave party's which died in the early 90's globally, are now popular their country.

      I believe many young American men who get influenced by a rap artist, is due to the lack of social male bonding. Being raised by a single female parent and having only female teachers, with no male role models in their lives. So they model themselves on male role models they see on television.

  12. QUESTION:
    Which is the least racist country in Europe?
    My dad insists on sending me to Europe to study Film,and am kinda freaking out-being African and all.So which country in Europe is my best option?

    • ANSWER:
      I'm an asian living in Auckland, New Zealand. There are MANY africans, asians, south americans, arabs, russians etc etc living here, there are sooo many races of all kinds here that people here are used to it, but I have no clue for other smaller towns. Sure there are a few racist people here and there, (NOT ALOT), but since there are waaaay more minorities here than racist people, they can't really do anything about it. Hate crimes here are very low. There are lots of domestic crimes etc on the news but only 1-2 hate crimes per year.

      In my opinion, from what I read on the internet it is not wise to go to eastern country, especially East Germany, there are many far right groups there. It is safer in countries like England and West Germany. As long as you are in a large population area (eg. cities), don't worry, you will be fine. In my place, it is safe to go out alone, I always take a short walk every night to my nearest convenient store, the chances of people robbing you are slim, but I always carry or something so I can give it to the robber and he will run away and instead of attacking me, just to be safe. I don't know about Europe though.

      My best option is England or France, there are many africans there, but go to France ONLY if you know how to speak French, or else they will find it impolite that you are going to live there without knowing their language. But this is my opinion, it may not be the best but I think it is.

  13. QUESTION:
    Was it Forest Gumps ignorance that made him so successful?
    Because if you've seen the film he is practiccaly clueless and his friend Jenny is so much more aware and she is quite a screw up. So is the phrase ' What you dont know cant hurt you ' True?

    Yeah sorry it was two questions :P.

    • ANSWER:
      You are asking about Forrest Gump as a character (played by Tom Hanks) in
      the film rather than in the novel by Winston Groom, which has some differences.

      I have to say that Forrest Gump appeals to the common anti-intellectual nature
      of American popular culture. Many Americans like to celebrate the notion that
      serendipity (being in the right place at the right time) is more important than
      developing one's mind for one's success in life (usually measured in money).
      Reviewing the film for the 'New York Times', Janet Maslin wrote that Forrest Gump
      is a 'hollow man' who is 'self-congratulatory in his blissful ignorance, warmly
      embraced as the embodiment of absolutely nothing'--an American Everyman?

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forrest_gump

      Admirers of 'Forrest Gump' may also admire Chance (played by Peter Sellers),
      the hero of the film 'Being There', which was based on a novel by Jerzy Kosinski.
      Chance is an extremely ignorant simple-minded man, who's essentially a blank slate upon which other people can project their quickly conceived fantasies of him without encountering any disagreement by him. And thus he becomes perceived by some influential Americans as their most appealing US Presidential candidate.

      Here's what Louise, an African American maid, said of Chance, a white American:
      "It's for sure a white man's world in America. I raised that boy since he was the size
      of a piss ant, and I'll tell you he never learned to read nor write. No, Sir, has no
      brains at all. Stuffed with rice pudding between the ears. Short-changed by the
      Lord and dumb as a jackass. Yes, Sir, all you got to be is white in America to get
      whatever you want. Gobbledegoop!"

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Being_there

      Perhaps someday someone like Forrest Gump or Chance will be elected President
      of the United States, and many Americans will be proud of his or her 'brilliance'.

      P.S. @ms.sophisticate (sic)

      At the risk of appearing to dignify your offensive personal attack against me with any response at all, I shall point out some of the nonsense in your rant. As a general comment, I say that your prejudices, stupidity, and lack of literacy are showing.

      My comments on what you wrote are enclosed in brackets [ ] :

      You wrote: "When individuals [ Who, me allegedly? ] base their opinions of the entire modern nation [ Your American ethnocentricity is showing; the USA is not the only 'entire modern nation'. ] on a satirical novel about unreality of American media culture (Being There) and a drama-comedy about history of USA through the eyes of exceptionally charming retard (Forrest Gump) [ Not everyone agrees with your opinion that Forrest Gump was 'exceptionally charming.' ] both written at least 25 to 30 years ago [ Not true: the novel 'Forrest Gump' was published 24 years ago in 1986. ], it makes them look decidedly ignorant and quite proud of that unfortunate fact no matter where they come from."

      Without any more 'evidence' than your prejudices, you apparently have accused of me basing all of what I think of the United States on the novels or films of 'Being There' and 'Forrest Gump', denouncing me for allegedly being 'decidely ignorant'. On the contrary, it is you who are ignorant as well as extremely presumptuous because you cannot know (ESP?) everything that I have heard, read, or experienced about the United States or Americans, which is vastly more than two novels or films. Given that some American academics respect my knowledge and have been interested in my criticisms of the United States, particularly of US history, your belief that I must be extremely ignorant of the United States is nothing more than your fantasy of me.

      You wrote: "American people are as human as every other representative of human race, which means different. [ Your sentence is awkward. ] Some are as ignorant as you seem to be [ More 'proof' by name-calling. ], and others are brilliant, successful in every meaning of the word and open minded enough not to assume that they know a lot about the things and the people they never had taken the time to learn anything about in the first place."

      Again, you have implicitly accused me of being extremely ignorant and misinformed about the United States and Americans and of making hardly any effort to improve myself about it. You have no 'evidence' beyond your prejudices to support your accusation. How could you possibly know all that I have heard, read, or experienced of the United States and Americans? Your arrogant presumption is very offensive.

      You wrote: "Now, if you were truly paying attention to what you were spewing out at ALL Americans..."

      Your lack of literacy is showing. If you could read, you might have noticed that I wrote of 'many Americans' (who are anti-intellectual), not of 'all Americans'. 'Many' is not a synonym for 'all'. I did not write 'all Americans' in my answer, though you seem keen to put those words into my mouth. Also, some Americans who write in GWS (such as Juditha) evidently respect what I write, though they don't necessarily agree with it, and, unlike you apparently, don't regard me as guilty of always attacking all Americans. Please note that I quoted what Janet Maslin, an American film reviewer, wrote in criticizing Forrest Gump--would you also like to denounce her as 'anti-American'?

      While I strongly disapprove of what George W Bush did as the US President, unlike you apparently (based on your comments), I don't believe that it's fair or accurate to compare him to Forrest Gump or Chance. After all, George W Bush did earn a MBA from the Harvard Business School, which would not have admitted Forrest Gump or Chance. And George W Bush did impress enough Americans to be elected twice (albeit one election was disputed) as the US President.

      The general point of my answer is that American popular culture has a common anti-intellectual nature, and Forrest Gump appeals to it. Indeed, most of my American friends concur that American popular culture has a common anti-intellectual nature, which tends to displease them. For some reason, however, ms.sophisticate (sic), who's apparently a proud American, seems to have become vexed enough at what I wrote to make an unwarranted offensive personal attack against me. I did *not* write that all Americans are anti-intellectual or that all Americans are of low intelligence or that all Americans are like Forrest Gump or that all Americans like Forrest Gump. Indeed, I made no statements at all about 'all Americans', though ms.sophisticate seems intent on convincing other people that her fantasy of me must be true.

      I have to say that ms.sophisticate (sic) has unintentionally corroborated the common international stereotype that Americans are extremely ignorant, arrogant, and offensively intolerant of any perceived criticisms of the United States. For the record,
      I believe that stereotype is substantially true of many, though not of all, Americans.

  14. QUESTION:
    How did the Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame wind up in Cleveland?
    And who sits on the committee that picks the inductees?

    • ANSWER:
      Cleveland's place in rock and roll history almost entirely stems from Alan Freed. Freed not only coined the term "rock and roll" while hosting a radio show in Cleveland broadcasting African American rhythm & blues music, he also is credited with holding the first rock concert ever in Cleveland's Arena (since demolished). Arguably, rock and roll formally was born in Cleveland in the summer of 1951.

      http://www.history-of-rock.com/

      http://www.alanfreed.com/biography.html

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Freed

      When the founders of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation were searching for a physical home for the HOF, Cleveland won a national poll conducted by USA Today, largely through the vociferous support of Cleveland rock & roll fans. Although Cleveland's willingness to raise the funds (over 0 million in 2009 dollars) necessary to build and support the HOF and Museum largely tipped the decision Cleveland's way, without the Cleveland public's strong enthusiasm for the project, the substantial public funds needed for the project would not have been available.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_and_Roll_Hall_of_Fame

      Freed's short career in Cleveland not only provided the historical context that justified locating the museum in Cleveland, Freed established Cleveland as a hotbed of rock & roll and other noted disc jockeys such as Bill Randle continued to fuel the flames even after Freed left Cleveland for New York City in 1954. Freed ignited Cleveland's love affair with rock and roll that resulted in the Cleveland public's enthusiasm for the Rock and Roll HOF and Museum project!

      At the time the HOF and Museum decision was being made, the importance of Cleveland in establishing Elvis Presley as the King also was cited. Presley's first northern concert took place at Brooklyn High School in Cleveland, where the first known concert film footage of Elvis was made.

      http://books.google.com/books?id=LBCZvsVKomwC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Elvis+Presley+Randle+Brooklyn&source=bl&ots=flYxbiPIkQ&sig=HihVmbf-enjVQvUP__laFJVeeBc&hl=en&ei=TFgjSr8zi84yteX1rAk&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PPA15,M1

      Cleveland disc jockey Bill Randle not only arranged the Brooklyn High School Presley appearance, he also arranged Elvis' first national TV appearance:

      http://www.elvispresleynews.com/BillRandle.html

      http://www.americanmusicpreservation.com/earlyelviscleveland.htm

      It should be noted that Cleveland even before Freed's arrival was the home of many noted night clubs, both African American rhythm & blues and jazz clubs and clubs featuring white performers.

      http://www.cleveland.oh.us/wmv_news/jazz123.htm

      http://www.cleveland.oh.us/wmv_news/jazz93.htm

      Also, as the home of the world-class Cleveland Orchestra and the Cleveland Institute of Music, Cleveland possessed a general musical sophistication well beyond that of most cities, and many civic leaders actually viewed the HOF as reinforcing and celebrating the city's history and musical tradition.

      Cleveland already was one of the great American ethnic melting pots when its massive industrial base attracted a large population of African Americans from a relatively impoverished South in the 20th century.

      Even earlier, northeast Ohio was a hotbed of the abolitionist movement. John Brown spent his youth in the Cleveland area and abolitionist U.S. President James Garfield was raised and lived just east of Cleveland. Northeast Ohio was a major terminus of the underground railroad. Oberlin College in 1835 became the first American college to regularly admit African Americans, and, as also the oldest continuously operating coeducational institution, it boasts of graduating the first African American woman college graduate.

      The Oberlin Conservatory of Music was founded in 1865 and is America's oldest continuously operating music conservatory.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberlin_Conservatory_of_Music

      With its diverse ethnic roots breeding an environment of relative tolerance (despite pronounced segregation), substantial African American population, strong musical cultural base, and decidedly liberal traditions, Cleveland was a waiting tinderbox for the rock & roll revolution.

      In reality, Clevelanders rocked earlier, harder and more than those in other contending cities, and they knew it.

      All things considered, the Rock and Roll HOF and Museum rightfully has found a beloved home in Cleveland.

      ####

      See the first two links in Sources for explanations of the induction process and for links to the current nominating committee.

  15. QUESTION:
    What were josephine baker's major accomplishments?
    Im doing a project on her and I really need to know.

    • ANSWER:
      Josephine Baker was an African American dancer, actress and singer, sometimes known as "the Black Venus". She became a French citizen in 1937.

      Born in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Eddie Carson and Carrie McDonald, she entered vaudeville as a teen, gradually heading toward New York City during the Harlem Renaissance, performing at the Plantation Club.

      On October 2, 1925, she opened in Paris at the Théâtre Champs-Elysées, where she became an instant success for her erotic dancing and appearing practically naked on stage. After a successful tour of Europe, she returned to France, where she starred at the Folies Bergère, setting the standard for her future acts. Already a star, she performed in a skirt made only of bananas, often accompanied by her pet leopard, Chiquita, adorned with a diamond collar. The leopard frequently escaped into the orchestra pit, where it terrorized the musicians, adding yet another element of excitement to the show. In a short while, she was the most successful American entertainer appearing in France, whereas in the U.S., she would have suffered from the racial prejudices common to the era. Writer Ernest Hemingway called her "the most sensational woman anyone ever saw." In addition to being a musical star, Baker also starred in several successful films, among them Zouzou (1934) and Princesse Tamtam (1935).

      Upon marrying her manager, Giuseppe Pepito Abatino, a Sicilian stonemason who passed himself off successfully as a Sicilian count, Baker transformed her stage and public persona into a sophisticated cultural figure (the marriage was reportedly a publicity stunt and not legally binding). At this time she also scored her greatest song hit J'ai deux amours (1931) and she became a source of inspiration for contemporary painters and sculptors alike.

      She was so well-known and popular, that even the Nazis, who occupied France during World War II were hesitant to touch her. In turn, this allowed Baker to show her loyalty to her adopted country by participating in the underground. According to an apocryphal story, Hermann Göring himself invited her to dinner one evening, already suspecting her of involvement in the Underground. Realizing that the wine he forced her to drink was poisoned, she managed to excuse herself and escaped from the chalet through a laundry chute. After the war, Baker was awarded the Croix de Guerre for her underground activity.

      Yet despite her popularity in France, she was never really able to obtain the same reputation at home. Upon a visit to the United States in 1936, she starred in a failed show with the Ziegfeld Follies; her personal life similarly suffered, and she went through six marriages, some legal, some not.

      Though based in France, she supported the American Civil Rights Movement during the 1950s, and protested racism in her own unique way, adopting twelve multi-ethnic orphans, which she called her "Rainbow Tribe." For some time she lived with all of her children and an enormous staff in a castle in France. (Baker had only one child of her own, stillborn in 1941, an incident that precipitated an emergency hysterectomy). On tours of the United States, she refused to perform in segregated nightclubs, and her insistence on mixed audiences helped to integrate shows in Las Vegas. Nevertheless, her career was on a downturn and she was near bankruptcy until she was bailed out and given an apartment by her close friend, Princess Grace of Monaco, another expatriate American entertainer living in Europe.

      On April 8, 1975, her fortunes seemed to be turning to the better when she was the star of a retrospective show in Paris, Joséphine, celebrating her fifty years in the theater. The show opened to rave reviews, but Baker never benefited from it. She died of a cerebral hemorrhage less than a week later, and the show was cancelled.

      Josephine Baker went through six wedding ceremonies: foundry worker Willie Wells (1919, divorced), Pullman porter William Howard Baker (1921, divorced), Giuseppe Pepito Abatino (1926, publicity stunt, not legally binding), French sugar magnate Jean Lion (1937-1940, divorced), French orchestra leader Jo Bouillon (1947, separated 1957, eventually divorced), and American artist Robert Brady (1928-1986, married 1973, also not legally binding, separated 1974).

      Baker wrote several autobiographies, each containing a different story about her family and career.

      She became the first American woman to receive French military honors at her funeral, which was held at L'Église de la Madeleine. She was interred at the Cimetière de Monaco. Link to photo gallery: http://silent-movies.com/Ladies/PBaker.html

  16. QUESTION:
    What should I write about Langston Hughes?
    What should I write? My teacher wants me to write a PERSUASIVE story about Langston Hughes telling why other people should nominate him to be the person of the year. Plus I have to write a second paragraph which must have SOLUTIONS. Please help!! I have researched every where, but I still do not know what to do!

    • ANSWER:
      James Mercer Langston Hughes, best known as Langston Hughes, (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. Hughes is known for his work during the Harlem Renaissance.

      Hughes, like many black writers and artists of his time, was drawn to the promise of Communism as an alternative to a segregated America. Many of his lesser-known political writings have been collected in two volumes published by the University of Missouri Press and reflect his attraction to Communism. An example is the poem "A New Song".

      In 1932, Hughes became part of a group of blacks who went to the Soviet Union to make a film depicting the plight of African Americans in the United States. The film was never made, but Hughes was given the opportunity to travel extensively through the Soviet Union and to the Soviet-controlled regions in Central Asia, the latter parts usually closed to Westerners. In Turkmenistan, Hughes met and befriended the Hungarian polymath Arthur Koestler. Hughes also managed to travel to China and Japan before returning to the States.

      http://www.umsystem.edu/upress/hughes.htm

      http://www.poets.org/lhugh

      http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/resource_library/publications_siyc_spring2006.html

  17. QUESTION:
    How old was Dorothy Dandridge when she dropped out of High School?
    please help i really need to know...
    i can't to seem to find it

    i know its in the 1930's but idk how old she was?

    so please help!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Early life and career

      Dandridge was born in Cleveland, Ohio to Cyril Dandridge, a cabinetmaker and minister and Ruby Dandridge (née Butler), an aspiring entertainer. Dandridge's parents separated shortly before her birth.Ruby Dandridge soon created an act for her two young daughters, Vivian and Dorothy, under the name of "The Wonder Children." The daughters toured the Southern United States for five years while Ruby worked and performed in Cleveland. During this time, (they toured non-stop and rarely attended school)<-------- With the start of the Great Depression, work dried up, as it did for many of the Chitlin' circuit performers. Ruby Dandridge moved to Hollywood, where she found steady work playing domestics in small parts on radio and film. "The Wonder Kids" were renamed "The Dandridge Sisters" and booked into such venues as the Cotton Club and The Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York. Dandridge's first on-screen appearance was a bit part in a 1935 Our Gang short.In 1937 she appeared in the Marx Brothers feature A Day at the Races. In 1940, Dandridge played a murderer in the race film Four Shall Die. All of her early parts were stereotypical African-American roles, but her singing ability and presence brought her popularity in nightclubs around the country. During this period, she starred in several "soundies", film clips designed to be displayed on juke boxes, including "Paper Doll" by the Mills Brothers, "Cow Cow Boogie", "Jig in the Jungle", "Mr. & Mrs. Carpenter's Rent Party. SEIRYKLAV

  18. QUESTION:
    What happens with the money sent to Africa from charities like Comic relief and children in need?
    What actually happens with the money? I always see adverts for World Vision and other charities like that. Are they actually getting the money or do the bandits get it all?

    • ANSWER:
      Well it is like this Bazza.
      First of all there is all the expenses incurred in this country... like office supplies stationary marketing, offices rent, travel expenses Legitimate Ceo's expenses,(meals , hotel bills rent girls etc)
      Then we get to the third world where all these poor little black starving children are dying,, first of all we have to pay legal fees and taxes to the government who rightly enough have to cover additional costs incurred by all these interfering bastards who keep trying to interfere in their power balance by trying to feed the poor for free when they are charging the earth for grain and rice.Then we have to pay all the lawyers and the Bank who change the currency from British/American/etc to African.
      They then have to pay off all the gangsters and business men down the line to allow he film crews to take pictures of the last dying breath of a starving child.
      To cut a long story short the poor people get about 0.000025 per cent of the takings but be happy because of your donation you have managed to keep some of the richest men in the world topped up with Champagne which is good for the worlds economy

  19. QUESTION:
    What books refer to the nursery rhyme Jack and Jill in them?
    Any authors who continuously refer to this nursery rhyme?
    Anything other than nursery rhyme collections? Like maybe Harry Potter or Wuthering Heights?

    • ANSWER:
      Jack and Jill may have one of the following meanings.

      "Jack and Jill" (song) is a nursery rhyme.
      "Jack and Jill" (Raydio song) is a song by Raydio released in 1978.
      Jack and Jill: The True Story is a short film starring Efin R. Schu and Aliza Ruth based on the rhyme.
      Jack and Jill (dance) is a format of dance competitions.
      Jack and Jill (magazine) is a children's magazine.
      Jack and Jill (comic) was a British comic that ran from 1885-1887 and from 1954-1985.
      Jack and Jill (television series) which ran from 1999 to 2001.
      Jack and Jill Ice Cream which sells ice cream from trucks on the east coast of the United States.
      Jack and Jill (novel) is a book by author James Patterson.
      Jack and Jill (organization) is a social club for prominent African-Americans and their families.

  20. QUESTION:
    Where to find auditions for student films?
    Would actor's access be a good place to start?

    • ANSWER:
      W3i Yahoo! Web SearchSearch query
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      Anytime
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      Also try:auditions for student films in los angeles,auditions for student films in miami
      more....Search resultsStudent Film | Auditions Free | 2012 Auditions and Casting Calls
      Posted by the Poducer/Director This notice was posted on auditionsfree.com location: San Francsico Category: Student Films Casting Call: “In The Middle”—Mini-Dv ...
      www.auditionsfree.com/.../auditions-by-category/student-film - Cached

      getgigs.com: student film auditions
      Getgigs.com: Resource for actors seekng film auditions in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and the rest of the world.
      www.getgigs.com/PA_StudentFilms.html - Cached

      Student Films Casting Calls | FreeCastingCall.com - Free ...
      FreeCastingCall.com - Free Casting Calls and Auditions | Auditions for Student Films
      freecastingcall.com/.../auditions-for-student-films - Cached

      Auditions for Films
      If you dream of being a movie star, browse through ExploreTalent.com large selection of film and acting jobs. ... Over 40,000 auditions & jobs.
      www.auditionsforfilms.com - Cached

      Find Student Film Auditions - Auditions ,Casting Calls and More
      Find Student Film Auditions - AuditionBanc.com is a comprehensive registry of modeling and acting casting calls. You can find, Acting Auditions, Baby Modeling ...
      www.auditionbanc.com/student_film_auditions.php - Cached

      Student Film - Student Film Auditions & Casting Calls
      I am a UT film student directing a short (6 min.) film for my Narrative Production class. The film is about a young deaf man who unknowingly trades his visi
      www.elitecastingnetwork.com/auditions/Student_Film_723 - Cached

      Casting Student Film | Los Angeles | Auditions Free | 2012 ...
      Casting Call for Student Film called “Home” in Los Angeles / Pasadena This is a non-paying gig for a student project in LA at the Pasadena City College.
      www.auditionsfree.com/2010/casting-student-film-los-angeles - Cached

      New York Casting Notices – Student Film
      New York area casting notices for student film productions. Please submit responsibly.
      www.therightcast.com/casting...casting-notices-student-film - Cached

      Acting Auditions - Student Film - Find Talent, Casting Calls ...
      Acting auditions, Student Film casting calls - I am shooting a student film, and I am looking for an African American female, and a male actor of
      www.thetalentshoppingnetwork.com/audition.../Student_Film_ - Cached

      Actors & Models needed. No prior experience necessary. Get ...
      Baby Gap Gerber Baby Model Search Open Baby Casting Calls. Baby Model Audition Casting Calls Baby Modeling Nationwide. Baby Modeling, Toddlers, Baby Modeling Contest ...
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  21. QUESTION:
    Do Argentines know their ethnic ancestry?
    I am an American of German, Irish and Korean descent.
    Of course, many of us(Americans) do not know our ancestry entirely but still we know at least a part of our ancestry.
    I am just curious how things are going in Argentina.

    Do Argentines generally know their ethnic ancestry?
    If they do, who are Argentine people's major ancestries?
    If you are Argentine, do you personally know your heritage?
    My dear Argentine fellows, so what is your ethnic ancestry? Please list them.

    • ANSWER:
      I think many of us are aware of our ancestry. It's particularly easy for the many (such as myself) who are descendants from immigrants who came here a relatively short time ago, so that we got to know our European-born great-grandparents or grandparents.

      There have been several "waves" of immigration: Europeans (mostly Italians and Spaniards, Germans, British, etc.. and all the people from different Eastern Europe countries who were collectively known as "Russians") before, during and after each World War; more recently, we've received many Korean, and some Chinese and Japanese immigrants, as well as some people from Eastern Europe's war-impoverished countries. Really recently, I've been seeing people who are obviously African, but I don't know from which country/countries.
      Also, there's always been a steady migratory exchange with the rest of South America, of course.

      So, for the major ancestries, I'd say Spain, Italy, and our neighboring countries are the best represented countries.

      And for your last question, yes I do. I'm the result (LOL) of a weird mixture of Welsh, Scottish, Basques, Italians, and Spanish people. I've visited some of my European relatives too :-)

      *****************
      EDIT: BTW, this is not directly related to your question, but if you're interested in the typical story of immigrants to Argentina, I strongly recomend the miniseries called "Vientos de Agua" (Winds of Water). It was a Spanish-Argentine coproduction filmed some years ago and it's a fantastic introduction to some of the major events in our recent history. It's on IMDB if you're interested :-)

  22. QUESTION:
    Which College Should I Go To For Film Editing?
    I'm looking for a school that has a bachelor's degree
    I want to be a film editor and I don't know which college to go to. I live in California.

    • ANSWER:
      California State University - Long Beach
      Bachelor degree
      Film / Electronic Arts
      Film/Electronic Media

      -Degree Requirements-

      Students are admitted to this option by virtue of meeting the Admission Requirements and Supplemental Screening listed above.

      Requirements:

      I. Major Screening Course - subtotal (3 units)

      1. FEA 299 Media Aesthetics (should be taken in their sophomore year)

      II. Media Studies Core - subtotal (9 units)

      1. FEA 300 History of Broadcasting (3)
      2. FEA 302 Classical Film Theory (3)
      3. FEA 314 Theatrical Film Symposium (3) (for students who entered the FEA major prior to Fall 2008) or FEA 205 Film History (3) (for students who are entering the major in Fall 2008 or after)

      III. Media Practice Core (choose two courses from one track, for 6 units total) - subtotal (6 units)

      1. Post-Production
      1. FEA 307 Audio Production
      2. FEA 320 Sound Design
      3. FEA 415 Media Editing
      4. FEA 416 Advanced Media Editing
      2. Management
      1. FEA 327 Production Management
      2. FEA 376 Media Sales/Distribution (F)
      3. Writing
      1. FEA 303 Film and Electronic Media Writing
      2. FEA 304 Writing the Short Script
      3. 404 Writing the Feature Script (prerequisite FEA 303 or 304 with "B" or better)
      4. 408 Writing the Screen Adaptation (prerequisite FEA 303 or 304 with "B" or better or ENGL 405 or 407 with "B" or better)

      IV. Culture and Media (choose three) - subtotal (9 units)

      1. FEA 310 Media and Culture
      2. FEA 317/W/ST 316 Women in U.S. Film
      3. FEA 318I/ENGL 318I Theory of Fiction and Film
      4. FEA 380 Documentary History and Theory (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      5. FEA 394 American Film Genres (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      6. FEA 412 American TV and African-Americans
      7. FEA 486I Alternative Media

      V. International Media (choose three) - subtotal (9 units)

      1. FEA 392A European Cinema (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      2. FEA 392B European Cinema (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      3. FEA 392C Latin American Cinema (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      4. FEA 392D Japanese Cinema (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      5. No more than one from:
      * FEA 454/ITAL 454 Italian Cinema
      * FEA 456/FREN 456 French Cinema
      * RUSS 428 Russian Cinema
      * SPAN 428 Spanish Cinema

      VI. Electives - subtotal (12 units)

      This requirement can be met with a sequence of elective courses in FEA (see CSULB Catalog for additional FEA courses not listed here and for full course descriptions). With prior advisor approval, certain non-FEA courses may be counted toward this requirement.

      VII. Senior Theory Course (choose one) - subtotal (3 units)

      1. FEA 401 Contemporary Film Theory (prerequisite FEA 300 and 302)
      2. FEA 402 Television Critical Theory (prerequisite FEA 300 or 310)

      TOTAL UNITS TO COMPLETE THE OPTION: 51 units

  23. QUESTION:
    I am 13 years of age and I would like to start an acting or commercial career in NYC???
    um i really wanna act in NYC...and i would hope if someone knows any audition in the big apple? Please help? I LOVE TO ACT ALOT!!
    by the way...IM 13!

    • ANSWER:
      [[[[[[OH MAN I ASSUMED YOU WERE A GIRL! DANG]]]]]]

      Do you live there? There's lots of things going on! There's a horror movie, non-union, so it's not a big one or anything. But I don't know if they want kids - but you can call and ask! Paul at 718-984-1591 or 917-912-1810. Paul Pastore is the casting director. You get an hour [for principle role though i think] but you could mention to him that extras of all ages are always needed :] lol

      part of the movie "And now both Jesse and Lizzie become trapped as “demonstration models” for a school that specializes in the training of potential serial killers."

      Submission address (barefoot photos a plus): Paul J.J. Pastore, P.O. Box 1727, New York, NY 10274. Please be sure to include a head shot along with your resume and contact information.

      ----
      *billy*

      Casting PeepHole, a short film. Shawn Parham, prod.; Tracey Moore, dir. Shoots late Aug. 2008 in Brooklyn, NY. Seeking—Marcus: 27-30, Caucasian, has an overbearing girlfriend; Lucy: 11-12, precocious, chubby; Billy: 10-12; Simone: 25-28, African-American; Joy: 25-30, African-American, cop; Brian: 25-30, Caucasian, cop; Dennis: 8-10, African-American, smart; Mr. Carter: 50-55; Ariel: 25-27, African-American. Producer plans to apply for SAG Ultra-Low Budget Film Agreement. To apply to this casting please send a jpeg Head Shot and resume along with a contact number, and in the subject line put PEEPHOLE to
      peephole@blackspiritfilms.com

      ----

      Casting Torture Chamber, a 35mm independent horror feature film about 13-year-old Jimmy Morgan, who is possessed by an evil too powerful to be exorcized by any priest. One year after his own brother, Father Mark Morgan, nearly died in the attempt, Jimmy is back with a vengeance—and an army of horribly burned children who follow his every murderous desire. The town of Smithville trembles in fear as Jimmy and his deadly young followers attack and abduct its residents—innocent and guilty alike—dragging their victims to an abandoned castle and subjecting them to grisly torments deep within its catacombs. Those who discover the terrible secret behind the disappearances and deaths don’t live long enough to tell it. The teacher, the doctor, the detective, even Jimmy’s own brother and mother, will all confront their fates in the Torture Chamber. Seeking—Dr. Edwards: early 60s, detective-type, bearded, LEAD; ******Jimmy Morgan: 13, menacing, doll-like, blue eyes, Freddy Krueger/Michael Myers-type role involving prosthetics, LEAD;****** *******Andy: 14, boy-next-door type, terrorized, must be comfortable working with a dog and spiders, LEAD;****** Heather: 12, dark-haired, frail, doe-like, LEAD; Father Morgan: mid-20s, Catholic priest, exorcist, balding, nervous brown eyes, big hands, LEAD;****** Ken: 13, outgoing, blond, heavy-set, drug addict.******

      Send pix & résumés to Dante Tomaselli Casting Dept., 532 La Guardia Place #189, NYC 10012. For more information, visit www.myspace.com/torturechamberthemovie. Pay provided. Producer plans to apply for SAG Low Budget Film Agreement.

  24. QUESTION:
    Artistic styles or movements of the early 20th century?
    Discuss at least three of the artistic styles or movements of the early 20th century and explain how those movements and the artists associated with them reflected new attitudes, philosophies, and social and political transformations.

    • ANSWER:
      Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1907 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.

      During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the European cultural elite were discovering African, Micronesian and Native American art for the first time. Artists such as Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the stark power and simplicity of styles of those foreign cultures. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse through Gertrude Stein, at a time when both artists had recently acquired an interest in primitivism, Iberian sculpture, African art and African tribal masks. They became friendly rivals and competed with each other throughout their careers, perhaps leading to Picasso entering a new period in his work by 1907, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian and African art. Picasso's paintings of 1907 have been characterized as Protocubism, as notably seen in Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, the antecedent of Cubism.

      'Expressionism' was a cultural movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the start of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world under an utterly subjective perspective, violently distorting it to obtain an emotional effect and vividly transmit personal moods and ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical reality.

      Expressionism emerged as an 'avant-garde movement' in poetry and painting before the First World War; in the Weimar years was being appreciated by a mass audience, having its popularity peak in Berlin, during the 1920s.

      Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including: painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.

      The Expressionist stress on the individual perspective was also a reaction to positivism and other artistic movements such as naturalism and impressionism.

      Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. In addition to being anti-war, dada was also anti-bourgeois and anarchistic in nature.

      Many Dadaists believed that the 'reason' and 'logic' of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality. For example, George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest "against this world of mutual destruction."

      According to its proponents, Dada was not art, it was "anti-art". Everything for which art stood, Dada represented the opposite. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend. Through their rejection of traditional culture and aesthetics, the Dadaists hoped to destroy traditional culture and aesthetics.

  25. QUESTION:
    Famous women in history that were the first to do something?
    (ex. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to attempt to fly a plane around the world) You can't use Amelia Earhart

    • ANSWER:
      1587
      Virginia Dare is the first person born in America to English parents (Roanoke Island, Virginia).

      1650
      Anne Bradstreet's book of poems, The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, is published in England, making her the first published American woman writer.

      1707
      Henrietta Johnston begins to work as a portrait artist in Charles Town (now Charleston), South Carolina, making her the first known professional woman artist in America.

      1766
      Mary Katherine Goddard and her widowed mother become publishers of the Providence Gazette newspaper and the annual West's Almanack, making her the first woman publisher in America. In 1775, Goddard became the first woman postmaster in the country (in Baltimore), and in 1777 she became the first printer to offer copies of the Declaration of Independence that included the signers' names. In 1789 Goddard opened a Baltimore bookstore, probably the first woman in America to do so.

      1767
      Anne Catherine Hoof Green takes over her late husband's printing and newspaper business, becoming the first American woman to run a print shop. The following year she is named the official printer for the colony of Maryland.

      1790
      Mother Bernardina Matthews establishes a Carmelite convent near Port Tobacco, Maryland, the first community of Roman Catholic nuns in the Thirteen Colonies. (The Ursuline convent established in New Orleans in 1727 was still in French territory.)

      1792
      Suzanne Vaillande appears in The Bird Catcher, in New York, the first ballet presented in the U.S. She was also probably the first woman to work as a choreographer and set designer in the United States.

      1795
      Anne Parrish establishes, in Philadelphia, the House of Industry, the first charitable organization for women in America.

      1809
      Mary Kies becomes the first woman to receive a patent, for a method of weaving straw with silk.

      Elizabeth Ann Seton establishes the first American community of the Sisters of Charity, in Emmitsburg, Maryland. In 1975 she became the first native-born American to be made a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

      1849
      Elizabeth Blackwell receives her M.D. degree from the Medical Institution of Geneva, N.Y., becoming the first woman in the U.S. with a medical degree.

      1853
      Antoinette Blackwell becomes the first American woman to be ordained a minister in a recognized denomination (Congregational).

      1864
      Rebecca Lee Crumpler becomes the first black woman to receive an M.D. degree. She graduated from the New England Female Medical College.

      1866
      Lucy Hobbs becomes the first woman to graduate from dental school, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery.

      1869
      Arabella Mansfield is granted admission to practice law in Iowa, making her the first woman lawyer. A year later, Ada H. Kepley, of Illinois, graduates from the Union College of Law in Chicago. She is the first woman lawyer to graduate from a law school.

      1872
      Victoria Claflin Woodhull becomes the first woman presidential candidate in the United States when she is nominated by the National Radical Reformers.

      1873
      Ellen Swallow Richards, the first woman to be admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earns her B.S. degree. She becomes the first female professional chemist in the U.S.

      1879
      Belva Ann Lockwood becomes the first woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.

      Mary Baker Eddy establishes the Church of Christ, Scientist, becoming the first woman to found a major religion, Christian Science.

      1885
      Sarah E. Goode becomes the first African-American woman to receive a patent, for a bed that folded up into a cabinet. Goode, who owned a furniture store in Chicago, intended the bed to be used in apartments.

      1887
      Susanna Medora Salter becomes the first woman elected mayor of an American town, in Argonia, Kansas.

      1896
      Alice Guy Blaché, the first American woman film director, shoots the first of her more than 300 films, a short feature called La Fee aux Choux (The Cabbage Fairy).

      1897
      H.H.A. Beach's "Gaelic Symphony" is the first symphony by a woman performed in the United States, and possibly the world.

      1901
      On October 24, 1901, Annie Edson Taylor, a schoolteacher from Michigan, becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.

      1914
      Mary Davenport-Engberg is the first woman to conduct a symphony orchestra, in Bellingham, Washington.

      1916
      Jeannette Rankin, of Montana, is the first woman to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

      1921
      American novelist Edith Wharton becomes the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for fiction. She wins the award for her novel The Age of Innocence.

      1922
      Rebecca Felton, of Georgia, is appointed to the U.S. Senate to fill a temporary vacancy. The first woman senator, she serves for only two days.

      1925
      Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first woman to serve as governor of a state, in Wyoming. In the fall of 1924

      NOTE: More in the link provided below.

  26. QUESTION:
    I need help comparing the movie All the King's Men to historical facts.?
    I need to write a page about it, but so far I've only found enough information for half a page. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Although based, loosely, on the political career of Huey Long....Governor of the state of Louisiana from 1928-32...it is a fictional film....therefore not based on true accuracy.....
      Long created the motto; "Every man is a king"....he advocated 'redistribution of wealth'....
      At the height of his political career he was assassinated in Sept. 1935...it is still unknown whether he was killed by accident, by his body guard, who thought there was an attempt being made on his life, or whether the assassin succeeded.....[he had a 'split lip', which suggested that he had been in a short fight...but the man who was accused of shooting him was killed by Long's bodyguards in a 'firestorm' of bullets.....Long had already accused some legislators of planning his assassination]...
      He was quite popular with the ordinary people, especially of Louisiana, and was fighting the U.S. government in an attempt to help their quality of life....
      There was an attempt to impeach him during his governorship, by the Oil industry...whom he wanted to tax.....[his political enemies stated that he had rigged the state politics so that he was actually a "virtual dictator of the state"....he was not liked by the 'old monied families' of Louisiana, as he wished to tax them..[ most were descendants of slave owners and resented the fact that they now had to pay their 'tenant farmers'..which they usually treated very much as slaves]..he also backed the new Social Security program, as well as the building and repairing of roads...[at this time many roads, all over the U.S. were usually either mud or gravel and in very poor condition]
      He ran for Senator in 1931 and won. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1932-35 and was a fiery orator and a backer of FDR for President...although he had his own ambitions of become the President of the U.S....
      His opponents or 'anti-Long' people, usually the more wealthy, but others not...did not agree with his views on allowing African Americans to vote.....
      [there are many opinions about this complicated politician....... some of his ideas and opinions were very modern....... he left a great deal of 'legacy' [read url].......
      He was succeeded by his brother, Earl Long, [jokingly called "Uncle Earl", due to all of his relatives that had been appointed to state jobs...]
      isis1037@yahoo.com

  27. QUESTION:
    What are American students studying in grade 9?
    What are American(or better, Massachusetts) students studying in grade 9? And Please tell me every subjects. (English,math,physics......) Because I'm goning to study in US. (in MA). And the school name is "Cushing Academy School" (Grade9-12)

    • ANSWER:
      Well I live in Minnesota, US but they teach almost the same thing...

      The main things you'll be learning is...

      Social Studies
      Science
      Language Arts
      Health and Safety
      Mathematics

      Social -

      Basic human communities
      Community, state, and national government
      Political parties and elections
      Comparative cultures and religions
      African American, Hispanic, and other ethnic studies
      Urban studies
      Women in our history
      Conservation, including human conservation
      Resource management
      Elementary economics
      Labor and management
      Taxation
      Foundations of American democracy
      U. S. Constitution
      Rights and responsibilities of good citizenship
      United Nations
      World geography
      Advanced map and globe skills

      Science -

      Earth's history
      Earth science
      Ecology and environment
      Weather and climate
      Air and air pressure
      Air masses and fronts
      Water and its uses
      Erosion
      Air and water pollution
      Heats and fuels
      Electricity and electronics
      Solar and nuclear energy
      Nature and uses of light
      Simple and complex machines
      Atomic structure
      Chemistry of matter
      Molecular theory
      Nature and use of chemicals
      Metals and plastics
      Space and astronomy
      Space travel
      Nature and causes of disease

      Luanguage Arts (English) -

      Evaluating material for accuracy
      Reading the newspaper
      Analyzing propaganda
      Advertising
      Drama and film
      Analyzing poetry
      Dramatic poetry
      Using poetry anthologies
      Novel and short story
      Folklore and myths
      Structure of a play
      Parable and allegory
      Interpretation of literature
      Listening skills
      Effective discussion techniques and questioning skills
      Preparing a speech
      Public speaking and debate
      The unabridged dictionary
      Vocabulary
      Foreign words used in English
      Grammar
      Fundamentals of composition
      Report writing
      Extended reference skills
      Special indexes

      Math -

      General Mathematics

      Ratio and proportion
      Basic concepts of statistics
      Mathematical vocabulary
      Direct and indirect measurement
      Banks and banking
      Investment
      Budgeting
      Insurance
      Taxation
      Graphs and tables
      Informal geometry
      Elementary algebra
      Customary and metric measurement

      Algebra 1

      Absolute value
      Sets and their relationships
      Properties of polynomial forms
      Equations
      Signed numbers
      Fundamental operations
      Equations of the first degree
      Ratio, proportion, variation
      Relations and functions
      Special products and factoring
      Fractions and fractional equations
      Square roots
      Radicals
      Quadratic equations
      Elements of probability

      In math (I don't know if this may apply in Mass. ) but there are around 3 main courses....1 is regular, another 1 is HP or AP (High Proformenced, Advanced Placement) and the other one is a slower Math, but this requires you to take another year of math.

      This may seem ALOT but they are very short due to they have to sqeeze all of these things into about 7 months (Including Days off)...Good Luck.

  28. QUESTION:
    Im 30 years old female . i will travel to new york this summer.What is the best things to do in there?

    • ANSWER:
      Top 10 To Do:
      Times Square: It has it all. You can find first class lodging, all varieties of dining, entertainment, as well as tours of all parts of the city, shopping and nightlife in this exciting, vibrant and historic landmark in New York City.
      Top of the Rock: The view itself is unique and astonishing. Unobstructed for 360 degrees from the 70th floor, the breathtaking landscape stretches for miles in every direction.
      Rockefeller Center: Having been built to meet the needs of the people, it has been a favorite spot for both New Yorkers and tourists.
      Central Park: This 843-acre oasis offers a refuge from the hustle and bustle of city life. A stroll along the Mall, a rowboat ride on the Lake, or a game of softball are just a taste of what you'll find in Central Park.
      Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York City's grand museum! Journeying through the art of mankind can be a overwhelming yet joyous experience.
      South Street Seaport: Along the bumpy cobblestone streets toward Pier 17 you'll find restaurants and shops galore, but this is also a historic district and a living museum.
      Rose Center for Earth & Space: The brand new, state-of-the-art center will take you to from the inner workings of our planet to the outer limits of the galaxy.
      Staten Island Ferry: It is run by the City of New York for one pragmatic reason: To transport Staten Islanders to and from Manhattan. Yet, the 5 mile, 25 minute ride also provides a majestic view of New York Harbor and a no-hassle, even romantic, boat ride, for free! One guide book calls it "One of the worlds greatest (and shortest) water voyages."
      Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservation Park: The country's largest urban zoo. Exhibits include: Tiger Mountain, JungleWorld, Himalayan Highlands, World of Birds, African Plains, Wild Asia, Baboon Reserve, and the 6.5 acre Congo Gorilla Forest.
      Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum: Perched on the flight deck of the U.S.S. Intrepid, a fighter jet looks ready to take off! The monstrous aircraft carrier now houses the largest museum devoted to the armed forces and the space program.

      Top 5 Things To See:
      Empire State Building: "The Cathedral of the Skies," as it has been called, identifies NYC more than any other feature in this landmark filled city.
      Statue of Liberty: Next to the flag, it's America's most famous symbol for freedom. Standing 151 feet above New York Harbor since 1886, the ferry brings you to her feet on Liberty Island.
      Ground Zero: It's a name and place we are all familiar with just as we are the events that took place on September 11, 2001 - a day that will forever be remembered in the hearts of all Americans.
      United Nations: Behind the 191 waving flags representing the member countries stands the buildings of United Nations who attempts to maintain peace, protect human rights and promote development throughout the world.
      Brooklyn Bridge: Ranks as one of the greatest engineering feats of the 19th century and remains one of New York's most popular and well known landmarks.
      5 Great Evening Entertainment Options:
      Broadway Shows: Going to the theater is one of the most popular events for New York City tourists. Favorites include: The Lion King, Mama Mia, Phantom of the Opera, Chicago, and many more.
      Dinner Cruise: Indulge in outstanding cuisine, attentive service, music and dancing. Stroll along the spacious decks while enjoying the ever changing views of the most dazzling skyline, and the majestic Statue of Liberty.
      VOX: Showcasing American composers, produced by New York City Opera. Presented by the Skirball Center for the Performing Arts, New York University
      Studio Mezmor: One of New York's biggest dance clubs opens its doors to bands, artists and designers.
      Loews Lincoln Square and IMAX Theater: A posh, eight-story IMAX theatre is the centerpiece of this Upper West Side multiplex cinema. The IMAX theatre offers several different films, both 3D and not.
      5 Great Restaurants:
      Ruth's Chris Steak House: Whether it's a romantic steak dinner for two, an important business luncheon, or a private party, they can accommodate your needs. The Manhattan steakhouse provides guests with a warm, comfortable atmosphere.
      DB Bistro Moderne: In Daniel Boulud's hands, the humble hamburger is transformed into the ultimate luxury item. The somewhat infamous DB Burger is stuffed with truffle-and-foie gras-laced short ribs, and is accompanied by pommes frites on the side.
      Katz's Delicatessen: A must for those who are gluttons for thick and juicy pastrami sandwiches, crispy fries. It is the oldest deli in New York, and the only one where the pastrami and corned beef are still hand-cut.
      Beppe: One of New York's best Italian restaurants since it opened in 2001—serves chef Cesare Casella's luscious Tuscan fare.
      River Café: Dining on this comfortably lounge-lit floating barge, simply decorated to defer to the obvious visual splendor, with a beautiful playing pianist.

      If your going consider learning how to use the subway....
      http://www.mta.nyc.ny.us/nyct/maps/subma...

      Your going to have a blast!!!!!!!!!!!

  29. QUESTION:
    History: Why was dancing(swing dancing) so important in the 1930's?
    For my history class?

    • ANSWER:
      The question doesn't really seem to make sense. How can a luxury activity, like dancing, be truly important? I suppose you could make some argument that it was 1) the depression and 2) people needed something to lift their spirits that didn't cost a lot money . . . but dancing is something that's always made someone happy, regardless of it's time period.

      A better question would be "What is the significance of the popularity of swing dancing in the 1930s?"

      For that I would say the following:

      First off, swing dancing and jazz music was a fusion of European (white) and African (black) forms of dancing and music, that even today is considered the first popular American cultural movement in dance and music. Even today, both Swing Dancing and Jazz Music have strong ties with American culture and history.

      Secondly, it was the depression, and people had little money to spend, so the cost of a nickle to go to a ballroom and dance with people to a live band, was an attractive idea (more bang for your buck as it were). This was before TV, and radios weren't affordable to everyone until the later part of the 1930's.

      I guess these are some of the social implications you can make regarding swing dancing.

      Now, if you want to know about the history of swing dancing, you need to learn about THE LINDY HOP!!!

      Lindy Hop developed out of Partner Charleston in the late 1920's in Harlem. The dance grew in popularity with swing music giants like Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, etc.

      The most amazing place to go in Harlem in the 1930s was The Savoy Ballroom, also known as "The Home of Happy Feet", where the best swing dancers would rub elbows with celebrities that would come and watch them dance. A bouncer at the club ended up putting a swing dance troupe together which were called by many different names but are now generally referred to as "Whitey's Lindy Hoppers". The performed at many public locations like Fairs, the Cotton Club, and eventually appeared in movies.

      A dancer by the name of Dean Collins, learned the Lindy Hop at the Savoy, and at the age of 17, moved to Hollywood to make a name for himself. He brought lindy hop to the west coast and was featured in more movies than any swing dancer of the era. He was also influential in bringing the dance more broadly to whites.

      Significant Dancers of the Day:

      "Shorty" George Snowden, credited with giving Lindy Hop it's name and possibly creating it.

      Franky Manning, credited with creating aerials in swing dancing, and one of the most influential persons for the reappearance of swing dancing in the 80s and 90s.

      Dean Collins, credited with bringing Lindy Hop to the west coast, and adapting his style of dance to be in a slot that eventually lead to the creation of "west coast swing" the official state dance of California.

      Movies you can watch featuring lindy hop:

      After Seben (1929) - First movie featuring early Lindy Hop
      Day at the Races (1937) - First movie featuring Whitey's Lindy Hoppers
      Buck Privates (1941) - Abbot and Costello Movie, featuring Dean Collins
      Hellzapoppin' (1941) - Considered the greatest swing routine ever captured on film (WATCH THIS ON YOUTUBE)
      Groovie Movie (1944) - A short about swing/jitterbug/lindy hop.
      Don't Knock the Rock (1956) - Rock n' Roll era movie featuring Lindy Hoppers, including Dean Collins

      Suggested Books:

      Frankie Manning's Autobiography, "Ambasador of the Lindy Hop", available on Amazon.

      I hope that helps!

  30. QUESTION:
    african american presidents on film?
    I don't remember how many are they, but i think that there are some films where there is an afro-american US president. Can you help me remember which are does films?

    • ANSWER:
      1.) Sammy Davis, Jr., in Rufus Jones for President (1933 short film)
      2.) James Earl Jones in The Man (1972)
      3.) Tom Lister, Jr. in The Fifth Element (1997)
      4.) Morgan Freeman in Deep Impact (1998)
      5.) Chris Rock in Head of State (2003)
      6.) Terry Crews in Idiocracy (2006)

      There were also two African American presidents on TV's 24 (played by Dennis Haysbert and D.B. Woodside)

  31. QUESTION:
    What exactly is the meaning of "Who Dat"? How did it get started?

    • ANSWER:
      http://askville.amazon.com/recorded-Dat-chant-1983-original-NFL-single/AnswerViewer.do?requestId=65678139

      The chant of "Who Dat?" originated in minstrel shows and vaudeville acts of the late 1800s and early 1900s, and was then taken up by jazz and big band performers in the 1920s and 30s.

      The first reference to "Who Dat?" can be found in the 19th Century. A featured song in E.E. Rice's "Summer Nights" is the song "Who Dat Say Chicken In dis Crowd", with lyrics by poet Paul Laurence Dunbar.[1] A common tag line in the days of Negro minstrel shows was: "Who dat?" answered by "Who dat say who dat?" Many different blackfaced gags played off that opening. Vaudeville performer Mantan Moreland was known for the routine.[1] Another example is "Swing Wedding," a rarely shown 1930s Harmon-Ising cartoon musical, which caricatured Fats Waller, Cab Calloway, Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Ethel Waters, and the Mills Brothers as frogs in a swamp performing minstrel show jokes and jazz tunes. The frogs repeatedly used the phrase "who dat?"

      In the swing era, "who dat" chants back and forth between the band and the band leader or between the audience and the band were extemporaneous. That is, there was no one specific set of words except for the two magic ones.

      "Who Dat?" Lyrics from 1937:

      Who dat up there who’s dat down there
      Who dat up there who dat well down there
      Who’s dat up there, sayin’ who’s dat down there
      When I see you up there well who’s dat down there

      Who dat inside who’s dat outside
      Who’s dat inside who dat well outside
      Who’s dat inside, singin’ who’s dat outside
      When I see up there well who’s dat out there

      Button up your lip there big boy
      Stop answerin’ back
      Give you a tip there big boy
      Announce yourself jack

      Who dat up there who’s dat down there
      Who dat up there who dat, well down there
      Who’s dat up there, singin’ who’s dat down there
      When I see you up there you bum
      Well who’s dat down there

      Who dat

      Staged minstrel skits had frightened black people saying "who dat" when they encountered a ghost, or someone imitating a ghost. Then, the "who dat"..."who dat say who dat"...skit would play itself out. This skit was done frequently in short reels from the 1930s - 1950s and in some early TV shows too. Even the Marx Brothers had a "who dat" routine, which they included in their film A Day at the Races.[1] Often, a ghost was called a "who dat." An animated character, now banished to the archives as being racist, MGM's Bosko had such an encounter in a toon called "Lil Ol Bosko in Bagdad" in 1938.

      "Who Dat?" became a familiar joke with soldiers during World War II.

      Back in WWII, US fighter squadron pilots would often fly under radio silence. But things get lonely up there in the cockpit, so after a while there'd be a crackle of static as someone keyed his mike. Then a disembodied voice would reply, "Who dat?" An answer would come, "Who dat say who dat?" And another, "Who dat say who dat say who dat?" After a few rounds of this, the squadron commander would grab his microphone and yell, "Cut it out, you guys!" A few moments of silence. Then... "Who dat?"[cite this quote]

      [edit] The "Who Dat?" cheer

      "Who Dat" became part of a chant for fans cheering on their favorite team. It has been debated exactly where it started, but some claim it began with Southern University fans either in the late 1960s or early 1970s and went "Who dat say dey gonna beat dem Jags" - Southern University being nicknamed the Jaguars.[2] Another claim is that around the same time it began at St. Augustine High School, a historically African-American all boys Catholic high school in New Orleans, and then spread to the New Orleans Public Schools. Another claim is that the cheer originated at Patterson High School in Patterson, Louisiana (home of Saints running back Dalton Hilliard).[1] In the late 70's fans at Louisiana State University picked up on the cheer. By 1983, the New Orleans Saints organization officially adopted it during the tenure of coach Bum Phillips, and Aaron Neville (along with local musicians Sal and Steve Monistere and Carlo Nuccio) recorded a version of "When the Saints Go Marching In" that incorporated the chant (performed by a group of Saints players) that became a major local hit, due in part to the support of sportscaster Ron Swoboda and the fact that Saints fans had been using the chant already.[1]

      In 1981, the Cincinnati Bengals fans and players had started with their similar "Who Dey" cheer.[3] It was also adopted by wrestling fans of the Junkyard Dog, who wrestled locally in the Mid South Wrestling area in the early to mid 1980s

  32. QUESTION:
    Different hair styles for school?
    I have short black hair. I usually wear it half up half down or in a pony tail.
    I want to look REALLY cute and i want side bangs or spiral curl. I have african american hair so if you know how to make spiral curls with rollers that will be helpful.

    • ANSWER:
      I have african american hair too. Side bangs look great on anyone. It's not hard to make spiral curls with rollers.

      http://www.videojug.com/film/how-to-use-rollers

      Please answer mine? http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AqsmI5VtcGBtnWPEl4JV6mPsy6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20090909145407AAEgVDf

  33. QUESTION:
    why is new york city called the big apple?

    • ANSWER:
      Ok I found this article and it's a bit long but it has a lot of info.

      Why Is New York City Called "The Big Apple"?
      "When and how did New York City come to be called "The Big
      Apple'?"

      There are actually several answers (nothing about New York
      City is simple, after all). All are explained below, with the last
      word going, appropriately enough, to SNYCH’s own Joe Zito,
      one of this burg’s finest purveyors of high-quality urban history.
      A veteran both of New York City’s inimitable press corps and its
      police department, Joe—happily for us—is able to provide
      authoritative first-hand testimony on this topic. Read on!

      Various accounts have traced the “Big Apple” expression to
      Depression-Era sidewalk apple vendors, a Harlem night
      club, and a popular 1930s dance known as the “Big Apple.”
      One fanciful version even links the name with a notorious
      19th-century procuress!

      In fact, it was the jazz musicians of the 1930s and ‘40s who put
      the phrase into more or less general circulation. If a jazzman
      circa 1940 told you he had a gig in the “Big Apple,” you knew
      he had an engagement to play in the most coveted venue of all, Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest, hippest, and most appreciative in the country.

      The older generation of jazzmen specifically credit Fletcher
      Henderson, one of the greatest of the early Big Band leaders
      and arrangers, with popularizing it, but such things are probably impossible to document. Be that as it may, the ultimate source actually was not the jazz world, but the racetrack.

      As Damon Runyon (among many others) cheerfully pointed out, New York in those days offered a betting man a lot of places to go broke. There were no fewer than four major tracks nearby, and it required no fewer than three racing journals to cover such a lively scene—The Daily Racing Form (which still survives on newsstands today) and The Running Horse and
      The New York Morning Telegraph (which do not)—and the
      ultimate credit for marrying New York to its durable catchphrase
      goes to columnist John J. FitzGerald, who wrote for the
      Telegraph for over 20 years.

      Joe Zito, who joined the paper as a young man some 70-plus
      years ago, recently reminisced about Jack FitzGerald and his
      times.

      In FitzGerald’s honor (and due largely to the strenuous efforts
      of attorney-etymologist Barry Popick, who, like the columnist,
      had migrated to NYC from upstate New York) a street sign
      reading “Big Apple Corner” was installed at Broadway and
      West 54th Street in 1997, near the hotel where FitzGerald died
      in poverty in 1963—although a location near the old Telegraph
      office might arguably have been a happier spot for it.

      Despite its turf-related origins, by the 1930s and ’40s, the
      phrase had become firmly linked to the city’s jazz scene. “Big
      Apple” was the name both of a popular night club at West 135th
      Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem and a jitterbug-style
      group dance that originated in the South, became a huge
      phenomenon at Harlem’s great Savoy Ballroom and rapidly
      spread across the country. (Neat cultural footnote: the great
      African-American cinema pioneer Oscar Micheaux liked to
      use the Big Apple as a venue for occasional screenings of his
      latest feature film or documentary.)

      A film short called The Big Apple came out in 1938, with an all-
      Black cast featuring Herbert “Whitey” White’s Lindy Hoppers,
      Harlem’s top ballroom dancers in the Swing Era. In a book
      published the same year, bandleader Cab Calloway used the
      phrase "Big Apple" to mean "the big town, the main stem,
      Harlem." Anyone who loved the city would have readily agreed
      with Jack FitzGerald: “There's only one Big Apple. That's New
      York."

      The term had grown stale and was in fact generally forgotten by
      the 1970s. Then Charles Gillett, head of the New York
      Convention & Visitors Bureau, got the idea of reviving it.
      The agency was desperately trying to attract tourists to the
      town Mayor John Lindsay had dubbed “Fun City,” but which
      had become better-known for its blackouts, strikes, street crime
      and occasional riots. What could be a more wholesome symbol of renewal than a plump red apple?

      The city's industrial-strength “I ♥ NY” campaign was launched
      toward the end of the Lindsay administration in 1971, complete
      with a cheerful Big Apple logo in innumerable forms (lapel pins,
      buttons, bumper stickers, refrigerator magnets, shopping bags, ashtrays, ties, tie tacks, “Big Apple” T-shirts, etc.).

      Apparently Gillett was on to something, because at this writing,
      over 35 years later, the campaign he launched—it won him a
      Tourism Achievement award in 1994, by the way—is still going strong.

  34. QUESTION:
    Any really good movies to recommend?
    i don't really mind what genre film it is just any really good movies that liked to recommend thanks

    • ANSWER:
      sure. i hadn't had time to sort them out, but you can check them on imdb.com first.
      you have everything from drama, trip leaders, action, animation, action and documentary. but they;re good. no tear jerkers or anything.
      enjoy

      bibliotheque pascal - surrealist hungarian/romanian movie
      leon - movie about a hitman that adopts a girl who wants to avenge her family
      buffalo 66 - vincent gallo as a damaged ex-convict who tries to impress his fucked-up family
      the green mile - after stephen king's book, best movie after a book.
      aineh (jafar panahi) - if you feel like going political - a movie about the women condition in islam
      black swan - you've probably seen this one - a ballet dancer loses her mind
      idioterne - lars von trier movie - dogma 95, about a gang of people who try to find the "inner idiot" and end up doing some fucked up things
      dogville - lars von trier - with nicole kidman. a parallel to jesus crucifiction, if he were a woman in the us.
      idiocracy - a comedy that will convince you to have lots of children if your iq is higher than 80
      the gods must be crazy I and II -comedy - the modern world seen trough the eyes of an african indigen
      life during wartime - very atypical comedy about american family
      grease - classic musical with olivia newton john and john travolta
      catch me if you can - a mastermind criminal who can fake anything
      thelma and louise - road movie about two women who end up being chased by the police after killing a rapist
      goa, last hippie standing - documentary on goa
      no impact man - documentary about the reality show - a man tries to live totally eco-friendly in the middle of new york
      american psycho - a serial killer from the high life of america
      henry, portrait of a serial killer - another serial killer from the scums of america
      a scanner darkly - sci-fi animation about a narcotics officer who does drugs
      blade runner - sci-fi
      grindhouse - quentin tarantino. a crazy stunt man who thinks he's deathproof tries to kill several women
      ed wood - the life of ed wood,the worse movie director ever.
      munich
      the island
      the city of the lost children
      a very long engagement
      blow
      der undergang
      adaptation
      schizopolis - a man has two personalities and his wife cheats on him with his second personality.
      synecdoche new york
      que hace yo para merecer esto
      oldboy
      hotel rwanda
      jackie brown
      grudge
      cruel intentions
      delicatessen
      true grit
      the faculty - all the cliches gathered in the same movie, to a point where nothing is cliche anymore. roberto rodriguez.
      planet terror - r. rodriguez
      red - oscar, this year
      the kids are allright
      angels in america - 6 part series about gay people in america
      summer palace - chinese banned movie
      reconstruction
      changelling
      doubt
      frozen river
      kafka
      mirror mask
      waking life
      rumba - a great french comedy about a one legged dancer married to a man who has lost his short-term memory. the perfect experimental movie
      elephant's dream
      moloch
      the big lebowsky
      asphalt tango - romanian movie
      easy rider
      edward scissorhands
      fear and loathing in las vegas
      ciudad de deus
      kill bill
      once upon a time in mexico
      bang bang you're dead
      quills
      full metal jacket
      memento
      million dollar baby
      amores perros
      american history x
      la mala education
      road to perdition
      the limits of control
      wall-e
      max and mary
      harvie krumpet
      up
      boogie nights
      despicable me
      double indemnity
      his girl friday
      megamind
      milk
      mr and ms smith
      pan's labyrinth
      pirate radio
      red
      spirited away
      strings
      tangled
      the virgin suicides
      visitor
      good night and good luck
      hysterical blindness
      night on earth
      little otik
      noises off - comedy
      les invasions barbares
      medalia de onoare - romanian movie
      twelve monkeys
      train de vie - french co-production about the jewish people during ww2. goran bregovic soundtrack
      the fall
      leon

  35. QUESTION:
    I need two novels and a third source preferably a film which have a related themes?
    preferably a modern movie with a theme at grade 11-12 level
    its for a report

    • ANSWER:
      Dystopian futures with totalitarian governments and limited education.
      1984 by Orwell (novel or film)
      Fahrenheit 451 by Bradbury (novel)
      Harrison Bergeron by Vonnegut (short story or film)

      African American Biographies. Bildungsromans.
      Black Boy by Wright (novel)
      Go Tell it on the Mountain by Baldwin (novel or film)
      I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Angelou (novel or film)

  36. QUESTION:
    why is new york city called the big apple?????

    • ANSWER:
      Various accounts have traced the “Big Apple” expression to
      Depression-Era sidewalk apple vendors, a Harlem night
      club, and a popular 1930s dance known as the “Big Apple.”
      One fanciful version even links the name with a notorious
      19th-century procuress!

      In fact, it was the jazz musicians of the 1930s and ‘40s who put
      the phrase into more or less general circulation. If a jazzman
      circa 1940 told you he had a gig in the “Big Apple,” you knew
      he had an engagement to play in the most coveted venue of all,
      Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest, hippest, and
      most appreciative in the country.

      The older generation of jazzmen specifically credit Fletcher
      Henderson, one of the greatest of the early Big Band leaders
      and arrangers, with popularizing it, but such things are probably
      impossible to document. Be that as it may, the ultimate source
      actually was not the jazz world, but the racetrack.

      As Damon Runyon (among many others) cheerfully pointed out,
      New York in those days offered a betting man a lot of places to
      go broke. There were no fewer than four major tracks nearby,
      and it required no fewer than three racing journals to cover
      such a lively scene—The Daily Racing Form (which still
      survives on newsstands today) and The Running Horse and
      The New York Morning Telegraph (which do not)—and the
      ultimate credit for marrying New York to its durable catchphrase
      goes to columnist John J. FitzGerald, who wrote for the
      Telegraph for over 20 years.

      In FitzGerald’s honor (and due largely to the strenuous efforts
      of attorney-etymologist Barry Popick, who, like the columnist,
      had migrated to NYC from upstate New York) a street sign
      reading “Big Apple Corner” was installed at Broadway and
      West 54th Street in 1997, near the hotel where FitzGerald died
      in poverty in 1963—although a location near the old Telegraph
      office might arguably have been a happier spot for it.

      Despite its turf-related origins, by the 1930s and ’40s, the
      phrase had become firmly linked to the city’s jazz scene. “Big
      Apple” was the name both of a popular night club at West 135th
      Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem and a jitterbug-style
      group dance that originated in the South, became a huge
      phenomenon at Harlem’s great Savoy Ballroom and rapidly
      spread across the country. (Neat cultural footnote: the great
      African-American cinema pioneer Oscar Micheaux liked to
      use the Big Apple as a venue for occasional screenings of his
      latest feature film or documentary.)

      A film short called The Big Apple came out in 1938, with an all-
      Black cast featuring Herbert “Whitey” White’s Lindy Hoppers,
      Harlem’s top ballroom dancers in the Swing Era. In a book
      published the same year, bandleader Cab Calloway used the
      phrase "Big Apple" to mean "the big town, the main stem,
      Harlem." Anyone who loved the city would have readily agreed
      with Jack FitzGerald: “There's only one Big Apple. That's New
      York."

      The term had grown stale and was in fact generally forgotten by
      the 1970s. Then Charles Gillett, head of the New York
      Convention & Visitors Bureau, got the idea of reviving it.
      The agency was desperately trying to attract tourists to the
      town Mayor John Lindsay had dubbed “Fun City,” but which
      had become better-known for its blackouts, strikes, street crime
      and occasional riots. What could be a more wholesome symbol
      of renewal than a plump red apple?

      The city's industrial-strength “I ♥ NY” campaign was launched
      toward the end of the Lindsay administration in 1971, complete
      with a cheerful Big Apple logo in innumerable forms (lapel pins,
      buttons, bumper stickers, refrigerator magnets, shopping bags,
      ashtrays, ties, tie tacks, “Big Apple” T-shirts, etc.).

      Apparently Gillett was on to something, because at this writing,
      over 35 years later, the campaign he launched—it won him a
      Tourism Achievement award in 1994, by the way—is still going
      strong.

  37. QUESTION:
    Has anyone not famous used Wen? Is it really that good?
    I just saw the commercial for Wen, this revolutionary hair care system on TVGuide. It had a lot of celebrity endorsements, and the creator and Alyssa Milano claimed the commercial was without smoke and mirrors, and really showed real stylists washing women's hair just once with Wen. The difference was amazing, pretty persuasive.
    But, I'm ALWAYS suspicious of commercials... So I wanna know, who's tried it, and is it REALLY that good?

    • ANSWER:
      Infomercials are just like making a short film, they have producers, directors, extras, actors and they are all GETTING PAID. They're scripted short films. Cher have stopped making informercials because she's tired of de-frauding her fans! Same reason why PROACTIVE are endorsed by celebrities, too, their goal is to be #1 in the country if you CALL NOW you even get FREE SHIPPING.

      You've heard of WEN right? Uses about 26 squirts, that's like half the bottle, so you can buy more. Another money making propaganda.

      My DIL uses that, but it looked like she used Samy found at Rite-Aid or Walgreens and I've seen result of Samy also. . . or I wouldn't be recommending products here, since I don't get credits for doing that.

      Example from one from a YAHOO responder: "Just a warning: I got wen hair care last year, since my hair is frizzy and poofy naturally.
      IT DID NOTHING. I followed all the instructions for about 3 weeks, and it had no effect. Your hair may be different, but I just thought I'd warn you."

      If I bottle all my tips & suggestions and charge people each, would people buy it? Of course not! I'm a nobody, but you get them all FREE ON YA HAIR.

      The hair industry is a billion dollar business, they sell products that cleans & condition the hair. They also sell products that damage and causes hair loss. They also DO NOT give money back guarantee for damaged hair or hair loss due to 'abuse'. Mechanical, chemical, or thermal styling. Hair straighteners and relaxers top the hair products pose the greatest risks. Hair relaxers, related products marketed heavily to African-American women, are dangerous because they may contain powerful chemicals such as lye, a toxic substance also used in drain cleaners.

      When you wash your hair with one of those nutrient-rich shampoos, most of the nutrients and active ingredients in the product don’t actually end up in your hair, they wind up down the drain… along with all the money you spent on the shampoo. It is HOW you use to style your hair or what styling tools that damage the hair, and what chemicals you're adding to the hair, not the shampoo.

  38. QUESTION:
    I need to write a paper. A problem in the world, and the solution/views. Help me get a thesis!!!?
    I did my draft on racism, she didn't approve the topic because it wasn't a problem and solution layout, i just wrote about racism. a lot of it. So now I need to make a thesis, FAST, on what problems exist within racism (i need to be specific) and the solution. I need as many ideas as possible.

    • ANSWER:
      Problems with racism? what type of race are you talking about?

      White racism or black racism?

      White Racism is if you are black and:
      -You are allowed to pass the SAT’s with a lower score.
      -You are allowed to say Ni**er and Cracker without getting in trouble.
      -Your school has the Ebony club, Minority Student Union, African Americans Unite, Spanish Club, and Asian club but can’t have a ‘white’ club due to racism.
      -You have BET and Black Stars and the black movie awards on TV but white people can’t have a network or award show just for whites.
      -You have a Black History Month and complain that it is the shortest month of the year
      -You are allowed welfare with fewer questions asked.

      solution: allow some white only things too

      Black Racism is when you are black and:
      -You are not allowed to get a better job because your name is Lakeisha or Latisha or jerome and jobs don't like hiring with those names.
      -You are type casted as the bad guy or poor guy in films and shows
      -You get arrested just because you are black
      - people have misconceptions that you are dirty or worthless because of your skin color

      solution: require jobs to look at the qualifications and not the name by using some sort of identifying number that corresponds with your real name ( like driver license or ss#) therefore they hire for skill and not for 'name'

  39. QUESTION:
    How Many African American Oscar winners have there been?
    Never actually thought about it. Does anyone know?

    • ANSWER:
      List of black Academy Award winners and nominees
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      (Redirected from List of black oscar winners and nominees)
      Jump to: navigation, search
      The following is a list of persons of African descent who have been winners and nominees of Academy Awards from 1929 to the present.

      Contents [hide]
      1 Best Supporting Actress
      2 Best Supporting Actor
      3 Best Actress
      4 Best Actor
      5 Honorary Award
      6 Best Director
      7 Best Picture
      8 Best Documentary, Feature
      9 Best Short Film, Live Action
      10 Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen
      11 Best Screenplay Adaptation
      12 Best Original Song
      13 Best Music Score
      14 Best Costume Design
      15 Best Film Editing
      16 Best Sound
      17 Best Sound Effects Editing
      18 Best Cinematography

      [edit] Best Supporting Actress
      1939: Hattie McDaniel, Gone with the Wind (winner)
      1948: Ethel Waters, Pinky
      1959: Juanita Moore, Imitation of Life
      1967: Beah Richards, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
      1983: Alfre Woodard, Cross Creek
      1985: Margaret Avery, The Color Purple
      1985: Oprah Winfrey, The Color Purple
      1990: Whoopi Goldberg, Ghost (winner)
      1996: Marianne Jean-Baptiste, Secrets and Lies
      2002: Queen Latifah, Chicago
      2004: Sophie Okonedo, Hotel Rwanda
      2006: Jennifer Hudson, Dreamgirls

      [edit] Best Supporting Actor
      1969: Rupert Crosse, The Reivers
      1981: Howard E. Rollins Jr., Ragtime
      1982: Louis Gossett Jr., An Officer and a Gentleman (winner)
      1984: Adolph Caesar, A Soldier's Story
      1987: Morgan Freeman, Street Smart
      1987: Denzel Washington, Cry Freedom
      1989: Denzel Washington, Glory (winner)
      1992: Jaye Davidson, The Crying Game
      1994: Samuel L. Jackson, Pulp Fiction
      1996: Cuba Gooding Jr., Jerry Maguire (winner)
      1999: Michael Clarke Duncan, The Green Mile
      2003: Djimon Hounsou, In America
      2004: Morgan Freeman, Million Dollar Baby (winner)
      2004: Jamie Foxx, Collateral
      2006: Djimon Hounsou, Blood Diamond
      2006: Eddie Murphy, Dreamgirls

      [edit] Best Actress
      1954: Dorothy Dandridge, Carmen Jones
      1972: Diana Ross, Lady Sings the Blues
      1972: Cicely Tyson, Sounder
      1974: Diahann Carroll, Claudine
      1985: Whoopi Goldberg, The Color Purple
      1993: Angela Bassett, What's Love Got to Do with It
      2001: Halle Berry, Monster's Ball (winner)

      [edit] Best Actor
      1958: Sidney Poitier, The Defiant Ones
      1963: Sidney Poitier, Lilies of the Field (winner)
      1970: James Earl Jones, The Great White Hope
      1972: Paul Winfield, Sounder
      1986: Dexter Gordon, 'Round Midnight
      1989: Morgan Freeman, Driving Miss Daisy
      1992: Denzel Washington, Malcolm X
      1993: Laurence Fishburne, What's Love Got to Do with It
      1994: Morgan Freeman, The Shawshank Redemption
      1999: Denzel Washington, Hurricane
      2001: Denzel Washington, Training Day (winner)
      2001: Will Smith, Ali
      2004: Don Cheadle, Hotel Rwanda
      2004: Jamie Foxx, Ray (winner)
      2005: Terrence Howard, Hustle & Flow
      2006: Will Smith, The Pursuit of Happyness
      2006: Forest Whitaker, The Last King of Scotland

      [edit] Honorary Award
      1948: James Baskett, for his characterization of Uncle Remus in Song of the South
      1995: Quincy Jones, Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
      2002: Sidney Poitier

      [edit] Best Director
      1991: John Singleton, Boyz n the Hood

      [edit] Best Picture
      1985: Quincy Jones (producer), The Color Purple

      [edit] Best Documentary, Feature
      1997: Spike Lee (director) and Samuel D. Pollard (Producer), 4 Little Girls
      2004: Karolyn Ali (producer), Tupac: Resurrection

      [edit] Best Short Film, Live Action
      1991: David Massey, Last Breeze of Summer
      1995: Dianne Houston, Tuesday Morning Ride

      [edit] Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen
      1972: Suzanne De Passe, Lady Sings the Blues
      1989: Spike Lee, Do the Right Thing
      1991: John Singleton, Boyz n the Hood

      [edit] Best Screenplay Adaptation
      1972: Lonne Elder III, Sounder
      1984: Charles Fuller, A Soldier's Story

      [edit] Best Original Song
      1967: Quincy Jones and Bob Russell, Banning
      1968: Quincy Jones and Bob Russell, For Love of Ivy
      1971: Isaac Hayes, Shaft (winner)
      1981: Lionel Richie, Endless Love
      1983: Irene Cara, Flashdance (winner)
      1984: Stevie Wonder, The Woman in Red (winner)
      1984: Ray Parker Jr., Ghostbusters
      1985: Lionel Richie, White Nights (winner)
      1985: Quincy Jones and Lionel Richie, The Color Purple
      1987: Jonas Gwangwa, Cry Freedom
      1988: Lamont Dozier, Buster
      1993: Jimmy Jam, Terry Lewis and Janet Jackson, Poetic Justice
      1994: James Ingram, Beethoven's 2nd
      1995: James Ingram, Junior
      2005: Jordan Houston, Cedric Coleman, and Paul Beauregard, Hustle & Flow (winner)
      2006: Siedah Garrett, Dreamgirls

      [edit] Best Music Score
      1961: Duke Ellington, Paris Blues
      1967: Quincy Jones, In Cold Blood
      1971: Isaac Hayes, Shaft
      1978: Quincy Jones, The Wiz
      1984: Prince, Purple Rain (winner)
      1985: Quincy Jones, [et al.], The Color Purple
      1986: Herbie Hancock, 'Round Midnight (winner)
      1987: Jonas Gwangwa, Cry Freedom

      [edit] Best Costume Design
      1992: Ruth E. Carter, Malcolm X
      1997: Ruth E. Carter, Amistad
      2004: Sharen Davis, Ray
      2006: Sharen Davis, Dreamgirls

      [edit] Best Film Editing
      1969: Hugh A. Robertson, Midnight Cowboy

      [edit] Best Sound
      1978: Willie D. Burton, The Buddy Holly Story
      1980: Willie D. Burton, Altered States
      1983: Willie D. Burton, Wargames
      1988: Willie D. Burton, Bird (winner)
      1989: Russell Williams II, Glory (winner)
      1990: Russell Williams II, Dances With Wolves (winner)
      1994: Willie D. Burton, The Shawshank Redemption
      1999: Willie D. Burton, The Green Mile
      2006: Willie D. Burton, Dreamgirls

      [edit] Best Sound Effects Editing
      1992: Lee Lemont, Under Siege
      1993: Lee Lemont, The Fugitive
      1994: Lee Lemont, Clear and Present Danger

      [edit] Best Cinematography
      1998: Remi Adefarasin, Elizabeth
      Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_black_Academy_Award_winners_and_nominees"

  40. QUESTION:
    AFRICAN AMERICAN PEOPLE AND MIXED RACE PEOPLE PLEASE LOOOK AT THIS QUESTION?

    OK SO before you watch the video, think, Is it true that in most rap and hip hop videos that mixed and lightskinned girls are favors?. Watch the video and tell me what you see. Also watch the short documentary after amd think

    • ANSWER:
      i can't watch the video because my internet is starting to slow down, but i think that it is true with reason.

      soulja boy had non-mixed/light skinned women in his vids but he isn't much at all so yeah & t-pain had some dark african american women in his film clip 'take ya shirt off'.. but i think it's just what the artist/rapper is into, you know? like we all are attracted to certain people, we all have preferences so it's sort of understandable that they would use girls they are attracted to.

      I think it is all so very important for african american women to not take offense to these artists using mixed women in their clips because really, who wants a man who's going to treat you like or refer to you as a whore from the gutter or degrade you using filthy language? that's not to say mixed women are whores & that, i'm mixed but even still they are not worth your time!

  41. QUESTION:
    What are some good hairstyles?
    IN the 9th grade i started doing curl and my hair just been putting headbands and such(my hair is short and i don't want to do the same hairstyles again)My hair doesn't really grow due to being anemic, so i wanted to do something that promote hair growth and still look good, My friends wear weave and say it grows their hair.so i wanted to ask which hairstyles is better-
    1-beach waves with weaves or curly weave or straight weave
    2-or box braids
    and will it damage my hair?

    • ANSWER:
      Your friends ARE TELLING YOU, hair weaves GROWS THEIR HAIR? First time I heard of that one!

      HAIR WEAVES & BRAIDS: Some hairstyles, including tight braids and weaves, may increase the risk of developing an irreversible form of scarring hair loss, according to a new study in the Archives of Dermatology.
      Seen predominately in African-American women, this type of hair loss, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, centers on the vertex (crown) of the scalp and spreads peripherally.
      “Any style that causes too much tension and traction on the hair, such as braiding with artificial hair weaved in, can possibly lead to scarring hair loss,” says study author Angela Kyei, MD, a dermatologist at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.
      In the study, 326 African-American women answered questionnaires about their hair-grooming methods, health status, and other demographic information. Dermatologists then performed a scalp examination to grade hair loss.
      Nearly 60% of the women showed signs of advanced central hair loss with scarring. The women were also more likely to have type 2 diabetes and bacterial scalp infections, and sport hair styles associated with traction, including braids and weaves, the study showed.
      “But hair loss is permanent, meaning that we can inject steroids or creams but it won't bring your hair back, so it’s very important to seek help with dermatologists early on,” she says.

      One example who just got a weave:
      "okay , i got it done exactly a week ago . it was ripple deep curls . now , it's A MESS . no curls at ALL . and then i have school tomorrow , how can i fix it and make the curls come back ?"

      'Whip My Hair' Singer Willow Smith Shaves Head
      The 11-year-old daughter of Will Smith and Jada Pinkett-Smith can no longer whip her hair back and forth.

      Watch: Natural Hair Versus Relaxed Hair Debate Discussed On The Dr. Drew Life Changers Show
      Google: "Why Viola Davis Ditched the Wig at the Oscars"
      If you want longer healthy hair, you can. Watch "Eve's Bayou" 1997 film, many of the women there wore their own hair, set in 1962, before relaxers were in style.

      Amber Rose is another example, who used to wear WEAVED styles now she's a bald but beautiful model.

  42. QUESTION:
    Why is New York called the Big Apple?

    • ANSWER:
      Why Is New York City Called "The Big Apple"?

      "When and how did New York City come to be called "The Big
      Apple'?"

      This is by far the most frequently asked question—and the
      most hotly debated—to reach our New York History Hotline.

      There are actually several answers (nothing about New York
      City is simple, after all). All are explained below, with the last
      word going, appropriately enough, to SNYCH’s own Joe Zito,
      one of this burg’s finest purveyors of high-quality urban history.
      A veteran both of New York City’s inimitable press corps and its
      police department, Joe—happily for us—is able to provide
      authoritative first-hand testimony on this topic. Read on!

      Various accounts have traced the “Big Apple” expression to
      Depression-Era sidewalk apple vendors, a Harlem night
      club, and a popular 1930s dance known as the “Big Apple.”
      One fanciful version even links the name with a notorious
      19th-century procuress!

      In fact, it was the jazz musicians of the 1930s and ‘40s who put
      the phrase into more or less general circulation. If a jazzman
      circa 1940 told you he had a gig in the “Big Apple,” you knew
      he had an engagement to play in the most coveted venue of all,
      Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest, hippest, and
      most appreciative in the country.

      The older generation of jazzmen specifically credit Fletcher
      Henderson, one of the greatest of the early Big Band leaders
      and arrangers, with popularizing it, but such things are probably
      impossible to document. Be that as it may, the ultimate source
      actually was not the jazz world, but the racetrack.

      As Damon Runyon (among many others) cheerfully pointed out,
      New York in those days offered a betting man a lot of places to
      go broke. There were no fewer than four major tracks nearby,
      and it required no fewer than three racing journals to cover
      such a lively scene—The Daily Racing Form (which still
      survives on newsstands today) and The Running Horse and
      The New York Morning Telegraph (which do not)—and the
      ultimate credit for marrying New York to its durable catchphrase
      goes to columnist John J. FitzGerald, who wrote for the
      Telegraph for over 20 years.

      Joe Zito, who joined the paper as a young man some 70-plus
      years ago, recently reminisced about Jack FitzGerald and his
      times.

      In FitzGerald’s honor (and due largely to the strenuous efforts
      of attorney-etymologist Barry Popick, who, like the columnist,
      had migrated to NYC from upstate New York) a street sign
      reading “Big Apple Corner” was installed at Broadway and
      West 54th Street in 1997, near the hotel where FitzGerald died
      in poverty in 1963—although a location near the old Telegraph
      office might arguably have been a happier spot for it.

      Despite its turf-related origins, by the 1930s and ’40s, the
      phrase had become firmly linked to the city’s jazz scene. “Big
      Apple” was the name both of a popular night club at West 135th
      Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem and a jitterbug-style
      group dance that originated in the South, became a huge
      phenomenon at Harlem’s great Savoy Ballroom and rapidly
      spread across the country. (Neat cultural footnote: the great
      African-American cinema pioneer Oscar Micheaux liked to
      use the Big Apple as a venue for occasional screenings of his
      latest feature film or documentary.)

      A film short called The Big Apple came out in 1938, with an all-
      Black cast featuring Herbert “Whitey” White’s Lindy Hoppers,
      Harlem’s top ballroom dancers in the Swing Era. In a book
      published the same year, bandleader Cab Calloway used the
      phrase "Big Apple" to mean "the big town, the main stem,
      Harlem." Anyone who loved the city would have readily agreed
      with Jack FitzGerald: “There's only one Big Apple. That's New
      York."

      The term had grown stale and was in fact generally forgotten by
      the 1970s. Then Charles Gillett, head of the New York
      Convention & Visitors Bureau, got the idea of reviving it.
      The agency was desperately trying to attract tourists to the
      town Mayor John Lindsay had dubbed “Fun City,” but which
      had become better-known for its blackouts, strikes, street crime
      and occasional riots. What could be a more wholesome symbol
      of renewal than a plump red apple?

      The city's industrial-strength “I ♥ NY” campaign was launched
      toward the end of the Lindsay administration in 1971, complete
      with a cheerful Big Apple logo in innumerable forms (lapel pins,
      buttons, bumper stickers, refrigerator magnets, shopping bags,
      ashtrays, ties, tie tacks, “Big Apple” T-shirts, etc.).

      Apparently Gillett was on to something, because at this writing,
      over 35 years later, the campaign he launched—it won him a
      Tourism Achievement award in 1994, by the way—is still going
      strong.

  43. QUESTION:
    Do you know any acting coaches, acting managers, or even legit directors and small short films?
    Hello, im fourteen, turning fifteen pretty soon, and live in NY. I love acting and anyone who knows me knows this is something I will not give up on. I don't expect a one shot hollywood thing, short films and small scripts wouldn't bother me. I just want something to start my career. If you or someone else knows anyone who needs a 14 year old african american female to play a role in a small film or anything of the sort, please let me know. It will be greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance (:

    • ANSWER:
      Hello i am around the same age as you and am also trying to get a role in acting as well.altho i have been told it is very hard to do. i have spent three years trying to get in just at least one short film and yet... nothing.... i am here to wish you luck and hope you get into somthing!
      ~Angie
      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=ArVyWygiwVw0l4d6B2zJXgXsy6IX;_ylv=3?qid=20090307070407AA4f73v

  44. QUESTION:
    Little Rascals..... Can anyone remember Farina? Was Farina a boy or a girl?
    I think --a boy, but my boyfriend seems to think -- a girl! I don't remember any reference to the gender. I thought it was a good question to pose here. Thanks! Niki

    • ANSWER:
      Male actors played this role according to this article.

      Our Gang, also known as The Little Rascals or Hal Roach's Rascals, was a long-lived series of American comedy short films about a troupe of poor neighborhood children and the adventures they had together. Created by comedy producer Hal Roach, Our Gang was produced at the Roach studio starting in 1922 as a silent short subject series. Roach changed distributors from Pathé to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) in 1927, went to sound in 1929, and continued production until 1938, when he sold the series to MGM. MGM continued producing the comedies until 1944. A total of 220 shorts and one feature film, General Spanky, were eventually produced, featuring over forty-one child actors. In the mid-1950s, the 80 Roach-produced shorts with sound were syndicated for television under the title The Little Rascals, as MGM retained the rights to the Our Gang trademark.

      The series, one of the best-known and most successful in cinema history, is noted for showing children behaving in a relatively natural way. While child actors are often groomed to imitate adult acting styles, steal scenes, or deliver "cute" performances, Hal Roach and original director Robert F. McGowan worked to film the unaffected, raw nuances apparent in regular kids. Our Gang also notably put boys, girls, whites, and blacks together in a group as equals, something that "broke new ground," according to film historian Leonard Maltin. Such a thing had never been done before in cinema, but was commonplace after the success of Our Gang.

      Unlike many other motion pictures featuring children that are based in fantasy, producer/creator Hal Roach rooted Our Gang in real life: the majority of the kids were poor, and the gang was often put at odds with snobbish rich kids, officious adults and parents, and other such adversaries. The series was notable in that the gang included both African-Americans and females in leading parts at a time when discrimination against both groups was commonplace.

      [edit]
      Directorial approach
      Senior director Robert F. McGowan helmed most of the Our Gang shorts until 1933, assisted by his nephew Anthony Mack. He worked hard to develop a style that allowed the kids to be as natural as possible, downplaying the importance of the filmmaking equipment. Scripts were written for the shorts by the Hal Roach comedy writing staff, which included at various times Leo McCarey, Frank Capra, Walter Lantz, and Frank Tashlin, among others. The kids, some of them too young to read, very rarely saw the scripts; instead McGowan would explain the scene to be filmed to each kid right before it was shot, directing the children using a megaphone and encouraging improvisation. Of course, when sound came in at the end of the decade, McGowan was forced to modify his approach slightly, but scripts were not adhered to until McGowan left the series. Later Our Gang directors such as Gus Meins and Gordon Douglas used a more streamlined approach to McGowan's methods, in order to meet the demands of the increasingly sophisticated movie industry of the mid to late 1930s. Douglas in particular was forced to streamline his films, as he directed Our Gang after Roach was forced to halve the running times of the shorts from two reels (20 minutes) to one reel (10 minutes).

      Pete the Pup, in a scene from 1931's Fly My Kite.[edit]
      Finding kid talent
      As the children grew too old to be in the series, they were replaced by new kids, usually from the Los Angeles area. Eventually, Our Gang talent scouting was done using large-scale national contests, where thousands of kids (often at the behest of their parents) tried out for one open role. Norman "Chubby" Chaney (who replaced Joe Cobb), Matthew "Stymie" Beard (who replaced Allen "Farina" Hoskins), and Billie "Buckwheat" Thomas (who replaced Stymie) all won major contests to become members of the gang. Even when there was not a massive talent search going on, the Roach studio was bombarded by requests from parents who were certain their children were perfect for the series. Two of these children included future child stars Mickey Rooney and Shirley Temple, neither of whom made it into the gang.

      [edit]
      African Americans in Our Gang
      The Our Gang series is notable for being one of the first times in movie history that African-Americans and Caucasians were portrayed as equals, though a number of people, including members of the African-American community, do not look favorably upon the characters of the black children today [1]. The four black child actors who held main-character roles in the series were Ernie "Sunshine Sammy" Morrison, Allen "Farina" Hoskins, Matthew "Stymie" Beard (whose trademark oversized derby hat was a gift from fellow comedian Stan Laurel), and Billie "Buckwheat" Thomas. Ernie Morrison was, in fact, the first black actor signed to a long-term contract in Hollywood history [2], and was the first major black star in Hollywood history as well [3].

      The Black children in Our Gang often epitomized the early Hollywood black stereotype of a "Negro", as well as that of the pickaninny [4]. These characters provided comic relief by speaking a mangled form of English, and by frequently being so frightened that either their hair stood on end, or they turned white with fear (a special effect created with negative film exposure techniques). The Black children's fathers were perpetually mentioned as being in and out of jail, and the children themselves habitually ate watermelon and fried chicken in the shorts. Comedian Eddie Murphy controversially parodied Buckwheat and the stereotypical aspects of his character in a series of skits for Saturday Night Live.

      In their adult years, Ernie Morrison, Matthew Beard, and Billie Thomas became some of Our Gang's staunchest defenders, maintaining that its integrated cast and innocent story lines were far from racist. They explained that the white children's characters in the series were similarly stereotyped: the "freckled kid," the "fat kid," the "pretty blond girl," and the "mischievous toddler." "We were just a group of kids who were having fun," Stymie Beard recalled [5]. Ernie Morrison stated that "when it came to race, Hal Roach was color-blind" [6]. Other minorities, including Asian Americans (Sing Joy, Allen Tong, and Edward Zoo Hoo) and Italian Americans (Mickey Gubitosi), were also depicted in the series, with varying levels of stereotyping.

      [edit]
      History
      (from left to right) Jackie Condon, Allen "Farina" Hoskins, Jack Davis, Ernie "Sunshine Sammy" Morrison, and Joe Cobb in the 1923 short July Days.[edit]
      Early years
      According to Roach, the idea for Our Gang came to him in 1921, when he was auditioning a child actress to appear in one of his films. The girl was, in his opinion, overly made up and overly rehearsed, and Roach patiently waited for the audition to be over. After the girl and her mother left the office, Roach looked out of his window to a lumberyard across the street, where he saw a group of children having an argument. The children had all taken sticks from the lumberyard to play with, but the smallest kid had taken the biggest stick, and the others were trying to force him to give it to the biggest kid. After realizing that he had been watching the kids bicker for 15 minutes, Roach thought a short film series about kids just being themselves might be a success [7].

      Under the supervision of Charley Chase, work began on the first two-reel shorts in the new "kids-and-pets" series, which was to be called Hal Roach's Rascals, later that year. Director Fred Newmeyer helmed the first version of the pilot film, entitled Our Gang, but Roach scrapped Newmeyer's work and had former fireman Robert F. McGowan re-shoot the short. Roach tested it at various theaters around Hollywood. The attendees were very receptive, and the press clamored for "lots more of those 'Our Gang' comedies." The colloquial usage of the term Our Gang led to its becoming the series' second (yet more popular) official title, with the title cards reading "Our Gang Comedies: Hal Roach presents His Rascals in..." The series was officially called both Our Gang and Hal Roach's Rascals until 1932, when Our Gang became the sole title of the series.

      The first cast of Our Gang kids was recruited primarily from children recommended to Roach by studio employees, including photographer Gene Kornman's daughter Mary Kornman, their friends' son Mickey Daniels, Roach child actor Ernie "Sunshine Sammy" Morrison, and family friends Allen "Farina" Hoskins, Jack Davis, Jackie Condon, and Joe Cobb. Most of the early shorts were shot outdoors and on location, and also featured a menagerie of comic animal characters, such as Dinah the Mule.

      Roach's distributor Pathé released One Terrible Day, the fourth short to be produced for the series, as the first Our Gang short on September 10, 1922; the pilot Our Gang was not released until November 5. The Our Gang series was a success from the start, with the kids' naturalism, the funny animal actors, and McGowan's direction making a successful combination. The shorts did well at the box office, and by the end of the decade the Our Gang kids were pictured on numerous product endorsements.

      The biggest Our Gang stars in this period were Sunshine Sammy, around whom the series was structured; Mickey Daniels; Mary Kornman; and little Farina, who eventually became both the most popular member of the 1920s gang[8] and the most popular African-American child star of the 1920s[9]. Mickey and Mary were also very popular, and were often paired together in both Our Gang and a later teenaged version of the series called The Boy Friends, which Roach produced from 1930 to 1932. Other early Our Gang kids were Eugene "Pineapple" Jackson, Scooter Lowry, and Andy Samuel.

      Farina, Mary Ann Jackson, and Joe Cobb in the 1928 short Old Gray Hoss.[edit]
      Changing distributors
      After Sammy, Mickey, and Mary left the series in the mid-1920s, the Our Gang series entered a transitional period. McGowan was often sick and unable to work on the series, leaving nephew Robert A. McGowan (credited as Anthony Mack) to direct many of the shorts from this period. The Mack-directed shorts are considered to be among the lesser entries in the series.[10] New faces included Bobby "Wheezer" Hutchins, Harry Spear, Jean Darling, and Mary Ann Jackson, while stalwart Farina served as the series' anchor.

      Also at this time, the Our Gang kids acquired an American Pit Bull Terrier with a ring around his eye; originally named "Pansy", the dog soon became known as Pete the Pup, the most famous Our Gang pet. During this period, Hal Roach ended his distribution arrangement with the Pathé company, instead releasing future products through newly formed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. MGM released its first Our Gang comedy in September 1927. The move to MGM offered Roach larger budgets, and the chance to have his films packaged with MGM features to the giant Loews Theatres chain.

      Some of the shorts around this time, particularly Spook Spoofing (1928, one of only two three-reelers in the Our Gang canon) contained extended scenes of the gang tormenting and teasing Farina, scenes which helped spur the claims of racism which many other shorts did not warrant. These shorts marked the departure of Jackie Condon, who had been with the group from the beginning of the series.

      Jackie Cooper in the 1930 short When the Wind Blows.[edit]
      The sound era
      Starting in 1928, Our Gang comedies were distributed with phonographic discs that contained synchronized music-and-sound-effect tracks for the shorts. In spring 1929, the Roach sound stages were converted for sound recording, and Our Gang made its "all-talking" debut in April 1929 with the three-reel Small Talk. It took a year for McGowan and the gang to fully adjust to talking pictures, during which time they lost Joe, Jean, and Harry, and added Norman "Chubby" Chaney, Dorothy DeBorba, Matthew "Stymie" Beard, Donald Haines, and Jackie Cooper. Jackie proved to be the personality the series had been missing since Mickey left, and he was featured in three 1930/1931 Our Gang shorts, Teacher's Pet, School's Out, and Love Business.These three shorts explored Jackie's crush on the new schoolteacher Miss Crabtree, played by June Marlowe. Jackie soon won the lead role in Paramount's feature film Skippy, and Roach sold his contract to MGM in 1931.

      Beginning with 1930's When the Wind Blows, background music scores were added to the soundtracks of most of the Our Gang films. The music, largely composed by studio musical director Marvin Hatley and part-time Roach staffer Leroy Shield, became a recognizable trademark of Our Gang, Laurel and Hardy, and the other Roach series and films. Shield's jazz-influenced scores, which made their debut with 1930's Pups is Pups, are particularly associated with Our Gang. Teacher's Pet marked the first appearance of the now-popular Our Gang theme song, "Good Old Days", composed by Leroy Shield and featuring a notable saxophone solo. Shield and Hatley's scores would support Our Gang's on-screen action regularly through 1934, after which series entries with background scores became less frequent.

      The gang races rich-kid Jerry Tucker in their makeshift fire engine in the 1934 short Hi'-Neighbor![edit]
      Transition
      Jackie Cooper left Our Gang in early 1931 at the cusp of another major shift in the lineup, as Farina, Chubby, and Mary Ann all departed a few months afterward. Our Gang entered another transitional period, similar to that of the mid-1920s. Stymie, Wheezer, and Dorothy carried the series during this period, aided by veteran child actors Dickie Moore and Kendall "Breezy Brisbane" McComas. Unlike the mid-20s period, McGowan was able to sustain the quality of the series, with the help of the kids and the Roach writing staff.

      New Roach discovery George "Spanky" McFarland joined the gang in 1931 at the age of three and, excepting a brief hiatus during the summer of 1938, remained an Our Gang kid for the next eleven years. At first appearing as the tag-along toddler of the group, and later finding an accomplice in Scotty Beckett in 1934, Spanky quickly became Our Gang's biggest child star. He won parts in a number of outside features, appeared in many of the now-numerous Our Gang product endorsements and spin-off merchandise items, and popularized the expressions "Okey-dokey!" and "Okey-doke!" [11]

      In late 1933, Robert McGowan, worn out from the stress of working on the kids' comedies, left the series and the Roach studio, going over to direct features at Paramount. German-born Gus Meins assumed McGowan's role starting with Hi'-Neighbor! in 1934, working with assistant director Gordon Douglas and alternating directorial duties with Fred Newmeyer.

      Wally Albright and Jackie Lynn Taylor joined the gang at this time; as did Billie Thomas, who within a few months of joining would begin playing the character of Stymie's sister "Buckwheat" (even though Thomas was a male). The Buckwheat character became a male in 1935 after Stymie left the series. The same year, Carl Switzer and his brother Harold joined the gang after impressing Roach with an impromptu performance at the studio commissary, the Our Gang Cafe, which was open to the public. While Harold would eventually be relegated to the role of a background player, Carl, nicknamed "Alfalfa", became Scotty Beckett's replacement as Spanky's sidekick. Darla Hood and Eugene "Porky" Lee also joined the gang in 1935.

      [edit]
      The final Roach years
      Our Gang was hugely successful during the 1920s and the early 1930s. However, by 1934, movie theater owners were increasingly dropping two-reel (twenty minute) comedies like Our Gang and the Laurel and Hardy series from their bills, and running double feature programs instead. Although the Laurel and Hardy series was discontinued in mid-1935 (and Laurel and Hardy moved into feature films full-time), MGM head Louis B. Mayer urged Hal Roach to continue making the Our Gang shorts. Roach agreed, and began producing Our Gang comedies as one-reel shorts (ten-minutes in length instead of twenty). The first one-reel Our Gang short, Bored of Education, won the Academy Award for Best Live-Action Short Subject (One Reel) in 1936. Bored of Education also marked the directorial debut of former assistant director Gordon Douglas.

      Spanky, Darla, and Alfalfa in the "Club Spanky" dream sequence from the 1937 short Our Gang Follies of 1938Also in 1936, the first (and only) full-length feature film starring the Our Gang kids was released, entitled General Spanky. Directed by Douglas and Fred Newmeyer, it starred Spanky, Buckwheat, and Alfalfa in a sentimental, Shirley Temple-esque story set during the Civil War. The film focused more on its adult leads (Phillip Holmes and Rosina Lawrence) than the kids, and was a box office disappointment.

      Tommy Bond, an off-and-on member of the gang since 1932, returned to the series as the neighborhood bully Butch, beginning with the 1937 short Glove Taps. Glove Taps also featured the first appearance of Darwood Kaye as the bookish Waldo. In later shorts, both Butch and Waldo would become Alfalfa's main rivals in his pursuit of Darla's affections.

      Roach produced one last two-reel Our Gang short, the lavish Our Gang Follies of 1938, in 1937 as a parody of MGM's Broadway Melody of 1938. In Follies of 1938, Alfalfa, who aspires to be an opera singer, falls asleep and dreams that his old pal Spanky has become the rich owner of a swanky Broadway nightclub, where Darla and Buckwheat perform and make "hundreds and thousands of dollars."

      Most casual fans of Our Gang remember the 1936–1938 shorts the best, especially the "He-Man Woman Haters Club" from Hearts are Thumps and Mail and Female (both 1937), the Laurel and Hardy-ish interaction between Alfalfa and Spanky, Alfalfa and Darla's on-again-off-again romance, and the comic team of Porky and Buckwheat.

      As the profit margins continued to decline due to double features [12], Roach could no longer afford to produce the series, and sold the entire Our Gang unit (including the rights to the name, the Our Gang film backlog from 1927 to 1938, and the contracts for the actors, writers, and director Douglas) to MGM in May 1938.

      The cover to Our Gang Comics #1. Cartoon versions of (l to r) Robert Blake (aka Mickey Gubitosi), Janet Burston, Spanky, Billy "Froggy" Laughlin, and Buckwheat appeared in the comic series, which also featured animated MGM stars Tom and Jerry and Barney Bear.[edit]
      The MGM era
      The MGM-produced Our Gang shorts were not as well-received as the Roach-produced shorts had been, due to both MGM's inexperience with the brand of slapstick comedy Our Gang was famous for and MGM's insistence on keeping Alfalfa, Spanky, and Buckwheat in the series until they were in their early teens. After a frustrated Gordon Douglas left MGM to return to Roach after completing only two films, MGM began using Our Gang as a training ground for future feature directors; George Sidney, Edward Cahn, Herbert Glazer, and Cy Endfield all worked on Our Gang before moving on to features. Nearly all of the 52 MGM-produced Our Gangs were written by Hal Law and former junior director Robert A. McGowan (Anthony Mack). McGowan was credited for these shorts as "Robert McGowan"; as a result, moviegoers have been confused for decades about whether this Robert McGowan and the senior director of the same name back at Roach were two separate people or not.

      The Our Gang films produced by MGM are considered by many Our Gang historians, and even the Our Gang kids themselves, to be lesser films than the Roach entries. [13] The kids' performances are considered to exhibit a "cutesy" style of child acting that was the antithesis of the original gang. [14]. Porky was replaced in 1939 by Mickey Gubitosi, later better known by the stage name of Robert Blake. Butch, Waldo, and Alfalfa all left the series in 1940, and Billy "Froggy" Laughlin (with his Popeye-esque trick voice) and Janet Burston were added to the cast. By the end of 1941, Darla had also departed from the series, and Spanky followed her within a year. Buckwheat remained in the cast until the end of the series as the only holdover from the Roach era.

      The series dropped in financial success after 1939 [15], and when six of the thirteen shorts released between 1942 and 1943 sustained losses rather than turning profits [16], MGM discontinued Our Gang, releasing the final short, Dancing Romeo on April 29, 1944.

      Since 1937, Our Gang had been featured as a licensed comic strip in the UK comic The Dandy, drawn by Dudley D. Watkins. Starting in 1942, MGM licensed Our Gang to Dell Comics for the publication of Our Gang Comics, featuring the gang, Barney Bear, and Tom and Jerry. The strips in The Dandy ended three years after the demise of the Our Gang shorts, in 1947. Our Gang Comics outlasted the series by five years, finally changing its name to Tom and Jerry Comics in 1949. In 2006, Fantagraphics Books began issuing a series of volumes reprinting the Our Gang stories, most of which were written and drawn by Pogo creator Walt Kelly.

      [edit]
      Post-history (The Little Rascals)
      [edit]
      The Little Rascals television package
      When Hal Roach sold Our Gang to MGM, he had retained the option to buy back the rights to the Our Gang trademark, provided he did not produce any more kids' comedies in the Our Gang vein. In the mid-1940s, he decided that he wanted to create a new film property in the Our Gang mold, and forfeited his right to buy back the Our Gang name in order to produce two Cinecolor featurettes, Curley and Who Killed Doc Robbin. Neither film was critically or financially successful, and Roach instead turned his plans toward re-releasing the original Our Gang comedies.

      The DVD cover for the 1994 feature film version of The Little Rascals.In 1949, MGM allowed Roach to buy back the rights to the 1927–1938 Our Gang shorts, while retaining the rights to both the Our Gang films it produced and General Spanky. As per the terms agreed during the sale, Roach was required to remove the MGM Lion studio logo and all instances of the names or logos "Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer," "Loews Incorporated," and Our Gang from the reissued film prints. Using a modified version of the series' original name, Roach packaged the 80 sound Our Gang shorts as The Little Rascals, and had Monogram Pictures distribute the shorts, first to theaters starting in 1951, and then to television in 1955.

      Under its new name, The Little Rascals enjoyed renewed popularity on television, and new Little Rascals comic books, toys, and other licensed merchandise was made available for purchase. Seeing the potential of the property, MGM began distributing their Our Gang shorts to television in 1956, and as a result, the two separate packages of Our Gang films competed with each other in syndication for three decades.

      The television rights for the original silent Pathé Our Gang comedies were sold to National Telepix and other distributors, who distributed the films under titles such as The Mischief Makers and Those Loveable Scallawags with Their Gangs.

      [edit]
      King World's acquisition and edits
      The television rights to The Little Rascals were sold to Interstate TV in the late 1950s. In 1964, they were sold again to a then-new distributor named King World Entertainment, and the success of The Little Rascals paved the way for King World to become one of the biggest television syndicators in the world; distributing, along with the Rascals, The Oprah Winfrey Show, Jeopardy, and Wheel of Fortune. In 1971, because of controversy over their presumably racist content, as well as other content deemed to be in bad taste, King World made significant edits to its Little Rascals TV prints. Many of the series entries were trimmed by two to four minutes, while several others (among them Spanky, Bargain Day, The Pinch Singer, Mush & Milk, and Three Smart Guys) were cut down to nearly half of their original length.

      At the same time, eight Little Rascals shorts were removed from the King World television package altogether. Lazy Days (1929), Moan & Groan, Inc. (1929), the Stepin Fetchit-guest-starred A Tough Winter (1930), Little Daddy (1931), A Lad An' A Lamp (1933), The Kid From Borneo (1933), and Little Sinner (1935) were all deleted from the syndication package because of perceived racism, while Big Ears (1931) was deleted for dealing with the subject of divorce. The early talkie Railroadin (1929) was never part of the television package, not because of potentially offensive content, but because its sound tracks (recorded on phonographic records) could not be found and were considered lost.

      When King World repackaged The Little Rascals in the early 2000s, the seventy-one films in the King World package were re-edited, restoring many of the edits made in 1971 and the original Our Gang title cards. These new television prints made their debut on the American Movie Classics cable network in 2001.

      [edit]
      New Little Rascals productions
      In 1977, Norman Lear tried to revive the Rascals franchise, taping three pilot episodes of the The Little Rascals. The pilots were not bought, but the pilots were notable for giving an early start to Gary Coleman.

      1979 brought The Little Rascals Christmas Special, an animated holiday special based on the gang and featuring voice work from Matthew "Stymie" Beard and Darla Hood. Hanna-Barbera brought the animated gang back from 1982 to 1984 in a series of Little Rascals television cartoons for ABC Saturday Mornings. Many producers, including Our Gang alumnus Jackie Cooper, made pilots for new Our Gang TV shows, but none of them ever went into production.

      In 1994, Amblin Entertainment and Universal Pictures released The Little Rascals, a feature film based upon the series and featuring interpretations of classic Our Gang shorts, including Hearts are Thumps, Rushin' Ballet, and Hi'-Neighbor! The film, directed by Penelope Spheeris, starred Travis Tedford as Spanky, Bug Hall as Alfalfa, and Ross Bagley as Buckwheat; and featured cameos by the Olsen twins, Whoopi Goldberg, Mel Brooks, Reba McEntire, Donald Trump, and Raven-Symoné. The Little Rascals was a moderate success for Universal, bringing in ,764,950 at the box office [17]

      [edit]
      Legacy and influence
      The characters in this series became well-known cultural icons, and could often be identified solely by their first names. The characters of Alfalfa, Spanky, Buckwheat, Darla, and Froggy were especially well-known; though like many child actors they were subsequently typecast and had trouble outgrowing their Our Gang images.

      The kids' work in the series went largely unrewarded in later years, although Spanky received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame posthumously in 1994. Neither he nor any of the other Our Gang kids ever got any residuals or royalties from reruns of the shorts or licensed products with their likenesses. The only remittances they received were their weekly salaries during their time in the gang, which ranged from a week for newcomers to 0 or more a week for stars like Farina, Spanky, and Alfalfa [18].

      One notable exception is Jackie Cooper, who was later nominated for an Oscar and had a full career as an adult actor; among other roles his best known character is probably Perry White in the Superman movies starring Christopher Reeve. Robert Blake also went on to success as an adult in cinema (In Cold Blood) and more notably in television (Baretta). In 2002, Blake was arrested on suspicion of murdering his wife, Bonnie Lee Bakely. He was acquitted of his charges on March 16, 2005.

      The 1930 Our Gang short Pups is Pups was deemed "culturally significant" by the United States Library of Congress, and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2004.

      [edit]
      Imitators and frauds
      Due to the popularity of Our Gang, a number of imitation kid comedy short film series were created by competing studios. Among the most notable of these are The Kiddie Troupers, featuring future comedian Eddie Bracken, Baby Burlesks, featuring Shirley Temple, the Buster Brown comedies (from which Our Gang received Pete the Pup and Gus Meins), and Our Gang's most successful competitor, the Toonerville Trolley-based Mickey McGuire series starring Mickey Rooney. Some less notable imitations series include The McDougall Alley Gang (Bray Productions, 1927-1928), "The Us Bunch" and "Our Kids".

      In later years, a large number of adults falsely claimed to have been members of the popular group. A long list of people, including persons famous in other capacities such as Nanette Fabray and Eddie Bracken, have all claimed to be or have been publicly called former Our Gang kids [19]. Bracken's official biography was once altered to state that he appeared in Our Gang instead of The Kiddie Troupers, although he himself had no knowledge of the change. There are many other persons who have falsely claimed to have been Our Gang kids such as Spanky, Alfalfa, Froggy, and often other characters that never existed.

      Among the most notable Our Gang impostors is Jack Bothwell, who claimed to have portrayed a nonexistent character named "Freckles", and went so far as to appear on the game show To Tell The Truth in 1957 perpetuating this fraud. Another is Bill English, a grocery store employee who appeared on the October 5, 1990, episode of the ABC investigative television newsmagazine 20/20 claiming to have been Buckwheat. Following the broadcast, Spanky McFarland informed the media of the truth, and in December, William Thomas, Jr., the son of the actual actor who played Buckwheat, filed a lawsuit against ABC for negligence.

      [edit]
      Persons and entities named after Our Gang
      A number of other groups, companies, and entities have been inspired by or named after Our Gang. For example, the folk-rock group Spanky and Our Gang was named in honor of the troupe, but had no other connection with it. In addition, there are a number of (unauthorized) Little Rascals and Our Gang restaurants and day care centers in various locations throughout the United States.

      [edit]
      Home video releases and rights to the films
      [edit]
      16 mm, VHS, and DVD releases
      For more details on this topic, see Our Gang filmography.
      From the 1960s to the 1980s, copies of all eighty Hal Roach Little Rascals talkies, and a handful of the silents, were available on 16 mm film through Blackhawk Films. The only edits made to the films were the replacements of the original Our Gang title cards with Little Rascals titles. Like the other Little Rascals distributors, Blackhawk was required to use custom title cards in place of the originals, and the conversion of Railroadin', whose soundtrack could not be found, into a silent. In the early 1980s, Blackhawk made two-thirds of the Little Rascals shorts available by catalog on VHS home video. Blackhawk Films was acquired in 1983 by Republic Pictures, who repackaged about thirty Little Rascals shorts in various VHS compilations for sale in retail stores in 1984.

      Cabin Fever Entertainment acquired the Little Rascals home video rights from Republic in 1993, and between 1994 and 1995 issued all eighty Roach talkies in a twenty-two volume Little Rascals VHS tape set. Each volume, hosted by film historian Leonard Maltin, featured four digitally restored and uncut shorts, complete with their original Our Gang title cards. In 1998, Cabin Fever shut down and sold the Little Rascals home video rights to Hallmark Entertainment, who reisssued the first ten volumes of the Cabin Fever VHS set, and released two Little Rascals DVD compilations. A third DVD, entitled Little Rascals Collectors' Series Volume III, was issued on November 15, 2005, and includes ten sound shorts.

      Meanwhile, MGM had released several non-comprehensive VHS tapes of its shorts, as well as the feature General Spanky. There are many other unofficial Our Gang and Little Rascals home video collections available from several other distributors, comprised of shorts (both silent and sound) which have fallen into the public domain.

      [edit]
      Status of ownership
      Currently, the rights to the Our Gang/Little Rascals shorts are scattered. Hallmark Entertainment holds the theatrical and home video rights to the Roach-produced Our Gang shorts, which it acquired after absorbing Hal Roach Studios, Roach's estate, and Cabin Fever Entertainment in the late 1990s. King World continues to hold the rights to the Little Rascals trademark and the Little Rascals television package; it offers both original black-and-white and colorized prints for syndication. King World's Little Rascals package was recently featured as exclusive programming (in the United States) for the American Movie Classics network from August 2001 to December 2003, with Frankie Muniz as the host.

      The MGM-produced Our Gang shorts, General Spanky, and the rights to the Our Gang name have been owned by Turner Entertainment (today a subsidiary of Time Warner) since 1986. Turner made a deal with King World in the early 1990s to jointly market the Little Rascals and Our Gang films and properties, instead of competing with one another. The MGM Our Gangs now appear regularly on the AmericanLife TV Network, and periodically on the Turner Classic Movies cable network.

      The widely-circulated rumor that entertainer Bill Cosby bought up the rights to Our Gang to keep the racial stereotypes off of television is false. Cosby has never owned any rights to the series at any time [20].

      Spanky disguises himself as an adult (standing on Alfalfa's shoulders) in a scene from 1935's Teacher's Beau.[edit]
      Our Gang kids, pets, and personnel
      For a detailed listing of the Our Gang kids, recurring adult actors, directors, and writers, please see Our Gang personnel.

      The following is a listing of the best-known child actors in the Our Gang comedies. They are grouped by the era during which they joined the gang:

      [edit]
      Roach silent period
      Ernie "Sunshine Sammy" Morrison (1922–1924)
      Mickey Daniels (1922–1926)
      Mary Kornman (1922–1926)
      Jackie Condon (1922–1928)
      Allen "Farina" Hoskins (1922–1931)
      Joe Cobb (1922–1929)
      Jay R. Smith (1926–1929)
      Jean Darling (1926–1929)
      Bobby "Wheezer" Hutchins (1926–1933)
      Mary Ann Jackson (1927–1931)
      Pete the Pup (1927–1938)
      Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
      Our Gang[edit]
      Roach talkie period
      Norman "Chubby" Chaney (1929–1931)
      Jackie Cooper (1929–1931)
      Dorothy DeBorba (1930–1933)
      Matthew "Stymie" Beard (1930–1935)
      Shirley Jean Rickert (1931)
      George "Spanky" McFarland (1932–1942)
      Tommy Bond (1932–1934 as Tommy, 1937–1940 as "Butch")
      Scotty Beckett (1934–1935)
      Billie "Buckwheat" Thomas (1934–1944)
      Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer (1935–1940)
      Darla Hood (1935–1941)
      Eugene "Porky" Lee (1935–1939)
      Darwood "Waldo" Kaye (1937–1940)
      [edit]
      MGM period
      Mickey Gubitosi (Robert Blake) (1939–1944)
      Billy "Froggy" Laughlin (1940–1944)
      Janet Burston (1940–1944)
      The poster for 1933's The Kid From Borneo. The film features an African "wild man" and, while available on home video, has not been part of the King World Little Rascals television package since 1971.[edit]
      Notable Our Gang comedies
      For a complete Our Gang filmography, see Our Gang filmography.

      The following is a listing of selected Our Gang comedies, considered by Leonard Maltin and Richard W. Bann (in their book The Little Rascals: The Life and Times of Our Gang) to be among the best and most important in the series.

      1923: The Champeen and Derby Day
      1924: High Society
      1925: Your Own Back Yard and One Wild Ride
      1929: Cat, Dog & Co. and Small Talk
      1930: The First Seven Years, Pups Is Pups, Teacher's Pet, and School's Out
      1931: Love Business, Little Daddy, Fly My Kite, and Dogs Is Dogs
      1932: Readin' and Writin', The Pooch, Hook And Ladder, Free Wheeling, and Birthday Blues
      1933: The Kid From Borneo, Mush and Milk, and Bedtime Worries
      1934: Hi' Neighbor! and Mama's Little Pirate
      1935: Beginner's Luck and Our Gang Follies Of 1936
      1936: Divot Diggers, Bored of Education, and General Spanky
      1937: Reunion In Rhythm, Glove Taps, Hearts Are Thumps, Rushin' Ballet, Night 'N' Gales, Mail And Female, and Our Gang Follies Of 1938
      1938: Three Men in a Tub and Hide and Shriek
      1939: Alfalfa's Aunt and Cousin Wilbur
      1940: Goin' Fishin' and Kiddie Kure
      1942: Going To Press

  45. QUESTION:
    What should me Sweet Sixteen theme be?
    I need UNIQUE ideas! Please, do not mention mascaraed, Hollywood, animal print or black and white party. Here are some facts about me that might help...
    1. I'm a Gemini (June)
    2. I like US History
    3. I like Greek mythology
    4. I'm African-American
    5. I like electrical and rock music
    6. I'm alternative/scene
    7. I love horror films
    8. I like anime
    9. I love OREOS!!!
    10. The party is at a hotel in the city downtown.
    11. I write poetry and short stories (Shakespeare theme?)

    Give me some innovative ideas please!!!

    • ANSWER:

  46. QUESTION:
    What can you do if you get in an argument and tell her something that you might regret?
    My girlfriend and I get in fights a lot about the silliest things. This last week she said that I was fat and lazy because I work part-time at a hamburger hut. But I always tell her that I can't work full-time because I am trying to write a screenplay for a new comedy. I think that if I pitch it to one of the major film studios it could make me famous!

    Anyway, long-story short she is an African American and I called her the N***** word, the Whor* word, and told her that I never loved her and that I just kept her around for the sex.

    She's acting really immature about it and moved in with her brother. What should I do?

    • ANSWER:
      No offense, but she's not acting "immature" at all. You have some serious apologizing to do and she was smart to move out for a while, if nothing else than to give you both time apart.

      What you can do is apologize and mean it. Write her a letter perhaps, or send flowers. You know your girlfriend better than anyone here, so you know what she likes best. You might want to actually tell her that you didn't mean what you said, the "told her that I never loved her and that I just kept her around for the sex."

      You really, *really* have a lot to apologize for. Start doing it, but with everything you said, than calling her "immature about it" because she removed herself from what she was told was a bad situation, don't expect this to be easy.

  47. QUESTION:
    Do I have a chance at Harvard?
    Hello, I am an African-American female who is interested in taking chance of applying at Harvard. My high school ranking is #35 out of #295. I didn't do so hot in 9th grade and the first semester of 10th. During the second semester of 10th I got all A's as by junior year I was taking 4 AP's and 2 Honors. I got all A's during junior year. By 12th I took all AP's. From second semester of 10th grade -12th grade I've retained a 4.0 GPA. I got a 2324 on my SAT's and a 35 on my ACT's. extracurriculars I've participated in were: 4-H, student body president, finances, forensics, statistics. I've been in plays and even short films if that makes a difference. I have been in orchestra all 4 years of high school and even competed in senior districts. Athletics include: swim team and softball team. Lastly, I've contributed to 90+hours of community service. I'm devistated to know if I've ruined my chances because of when I was younger. I went through much grief during those times because my father had went to jail for 60+ years and I had to move across the country.
    Our SAT scores our different in my high school we get 4 digits. But it would be 2300 sorry to confuse

    • ANSWER:

  48. QUESTION:
    American racism in films and tv?
    Can you guys find for me, Racism depicted in american films/sitcoms/comedies? even if its a short scene, or what someone even says i'd actually rather that actually and i mean anything, doesn't have to be directly be racist, even subliminally racist.
    African american racism is one I'm really looking for but any latino/asian/african will do too thanks

    • ANSWER:
      American history X
      Crash
      Malcom X
      Do the right thing
      Jungle Fever
      25th Hour

      Hope this helps

  49. QUESTION:
    why do they call new york city the big apple?

    • ANSWER:
      Various accounts have traced the “Big Apple” expression to
      Depression-Era sidewalk apple vendors, a Harlem night
      club, and a popular 1930s dance known as the “Big Apple.”
      One fanciful version even links the name with a notorious
      19th-century procuress!
      In fact, it was the jazz musicians of the 1930s and ‘40s who put
      the phrase into more or less general circulation. If a jazzman
      circa 1940 told you he had a gig in the “Big Apple,” you knew
      he had an engagement to play in the most coveted venue of all,
      Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest, hippest, and
      most appreciative in the country.

      The older generation of jazzmen specifically credit Fletcher
      Henderson, one of the greatest of the early Big Band leaders
      and arrangers, with popularizing it, but such things are probably
      impossible to document. Be that as it may, the ultimate source
      actually was not the jazz world, but the racetrack.

      As Damon Runyon (among many others) cheerfully pointed out,
      New York in those days offered a betting man a lot of places to
      go broke. There were no fewer than four major tracks nearby,
      and it required no fewer than three racing journals to cover
      such a lively scene—The Daily Racing Form (which still
      survives on newsstands today) and The Running Horse and
      The New York Morning Telegraph (which do not)—and the
      ultimate credit for marrying New York to its durable catchphrase
      goes to columnist John J. FitzGerald, who wrote for the
      Telegraph for over 20 years.

      Joe Zito, who joined the paper as a young man some 70-plus
      years ago, recently reminisced about Jack FitzGerald and his
      times.

      In FitzGerald’s honor (and due largely to the strenuous efforts
      of attorney-etymologist Barry Popick, who, like the columnist,
      had migrated to NYC from upstate New York) a street sign
      reading “Big Apple Corner” was installed at Broadway and
      West 54th Street in 1997, near the hotel where FitzGerald died
      in poverty in 1963—although a location near the old Telegraph
      office might arguably have been a happier spot for it.

      Despite its turf-related origins, by the 1930s and ’40s, the
      phrase had become firmly linked to the city’s jazz scene. “Big
      Apple” was the name both of a popular night club at West 135th
      Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem and a jitterbug-style
      group dance that originated in the South, became a huge
      phenomenon at Harlem’s great Savoy Ballroom and rapidly
      spread across the country. (Neat cultural footnote: the great
      African-American cinema pioneer Oscar Micheaux liked to
      use the Big Apple as a venue for occasional screenings of his
      latest feature film or documentary.)

      A film short called The Big Apple came out in 1938, with an all-
      Black cast featuring Herbert “Whitey” White’s Lindy Hoppers,
      Harlem’s top ballroom dancers in the Swing Era. In a book
      published the same year, bandleader Cab Calloway used the
      phrase "Big Apple" to mean "the big town, the main stem,
      Harlem." Anyone who loved the city would have readily agreed
      with Jack FitzGerald: “There's only one Big Apple. That's New
      York."

      The term had grown stale and was in fact generally forgotten by
      the 1970s. Then Charles Gillett, head of the New York
      Convention & Visitors Bureau, got the idea of reviving it.
      The agency was desperately trying to attract tourists to the
      town Mayor John Lindsay had dubbed “Fun City,” but which
      had become better-known for its blackouts, strikes, street crime
      and occasional riots. What could be a more wholesome symbol
      of renewal than a plump red apple?

  50. QUESTION:
    Cartoon/Animation Ideas For Student Film "Series"?
    Alright, so my major is animation. I'm guessing anyone who's interested in animation knows that coming up with a plot for a student film isn't even close to being easy. I'm also trying to come up with a plot for a student "series"...so I have to plot out a long drawn out idea, not just a short film idea.

    The process is really fun...but it's a tad bit difficult, because my plot line needs to be based around a series that "tween" girls can relate to. The project is based around conflict and solution.

    Conflict: In this day in time if a girl is too interested in athletics, cars, and less feminine activities she is considered a lesbian. But if a girl is absolutely boy crazy, in love with the color pink, make-up, shopping, nail polish, sleepovers, gossiping, and spends most of her time dreaming about her future wedding, it is declared by feminine activists that she is living the "stereotypical life of an American girl".

    Solution: How can you build up the foundations of a successful animated series aimed towards the female tween audience..without it being too girly?

    I've gotten my inspiration from the following cartoons:
    Totally Spies
    Proud Family
    Winx Club
    Avatar:The Last Airbender
    The Replacements
    and My Life as a Teenage Robot

    Mainly I've chosen Totally Spies, because I've yet to find a girly show that isn't based around the characters being "spies", fairies, witches, super heroes, trollz, or just someone with some type of mystical super powers. &&The reason I've chosen The Proud Family is because it deals with typical tween stuff; your parents always telling you no and grounding you, having arguments with your best friend over something obnoxious then forgiving each other, falling for the popular guys at school... that they won't even have a chance with unless they're a cheerleader, and of course cell phones...and shopping!

    The only difference between the two series is that Totally Spies is a group of over the top teenage spies living in Malibu and Proud Family is about an African American Family.

    I pretty much want to hear about great ideas that people have always wanted to be added into their favorite girly animated series...the ideas that animators never took the time to write it in...and then wondered why the show was eventually cancelled...because know one could relate to it:(

    My plot right now consists of a tween girl who of course doesn't really stick out at school, has an over protective mother, her parents just got divorced a couple of months before school started, and she eventually finds out that she's a mermaid(inspired by The Tales of Emily Windsnap). In most girly shows, the main character is usually surrounded by an entourage or "posse" of friends, and she usually falls for the bad boy, the boy that her parent's can't stand, or like I previously said...the boy that she doesn't have a chance with, let alone anything in common with. My twist is: that over time she meets another girl and they become best friends...I haven't decided if the best friend will be daring(to the point of always getting them in trouble) or really quiet and scary(to the point of being like Chucky from The Rugrats). She also falls for her best guy friend, who is absolutely the opposite of a jerk(let's just say if you looked up the word chivalry in the dictionary his face would be pictured right next to it:) ...Hopefully the theory that every girl wants a bad boy, won't totally ruin this idea!

    Anyways, any ideas or inputs added to mine would be seriously appreciated. Also any completely new inspirations would be appreciated as well...let's be honest I don't really know if tweens these days would sit and watch a cartoon about a girl who finds out that she's a mermaid, they would probably change the channel...if I'm wrong?? Please let me know!

    Lots of Thank You's, seriously!
    :)

    • ANSWER:
      You got the story line part spot on.. Now, get it connected with the animation.


short films african american